Major Principles of Advertising in the real world.  Strategy: all good effective advertising has a strong strategic basis.  Media: best media choices are creative choices.  Creative: the best campaigns have fresh, original, imaginative executions.  Advertising in Society: study not only ads, but industry and society, then go back and study emergence of all 3 over time.  Normative vs. Historical.  Normative: Guidelines or ideals, How things “should” operate, Systematic, and consistent.

Historical: The “real world”, How things are actually done, Irrational, unpredictable.  Normative is what we learn in class, historical is more real world, learning on the job.  What Goods are Principles?  Justification for practice, Tools to generate options, Ammo for arguing your case, and explaining your choices to people.

Digital and Direct-Response Advertising *Virtually every advertiser is using the techniques of direct response as a key ingredient of marketing strategies.

Digital Pros:

A relatively inexpensive, quick, targeted, measurable, and easily available interactive medium.  A combination if interactive audio with video capabilities that can engage a customer.  Among the most flexible media with an ability to change messages immediately in reaction to market and competitive conditions

Digital Cons:

Early failures made some advertisers cautious about exploring the unique possibilities offered by this medium.  Some consumers are still reluctant to use the Internet as a means of buying products and services; they are timid to give their credit card numbers over the Internet even though secure sites are available.  There are so many websites that it makes it difficult for consumers to know what is available or have much time to spend with any single site.

Direct Contact with Consumers

Marketers have moved towards a more personal relationship with their consumers. They have progressed steadily from mass marketing wherein prospects were reached relatively indiscriminately at the lowers possible CPM to: Category marketing (broad demographic targeting. Ex: women aged 18-34), Niche marketing (more narrow categories. Ex: women aged 18-34 with children), Group or community marketing (groups with common interests. Ex: tennis players).  While this was happening, the competitive market was reducing the distinction among its brands resulting in: Price competition with shrinking profit margins for sellers and A reliance on trusted brands to provide customers with a perception if consistent quality.

Customer relationship marketing (CRM): a management concept that organizes a business according to the needs of the consumer. From the standpoint of customers, it is clear that the audience feels empowered by interactive media, and they use this empowerment in a proactive manner. Customers are also embracing online couponing, entering sweepstakes online, and participating in other targeted sales promotion activities. Customers respond to promotions tailored to their interests and businesses are happy to avoid the expense of waste circulation. Although CRM sacrifices some control to customers, there are 5 advantages:

More effective cross selling and upselling from current customers.  Higher customer retention and loyalty.  Higher customer profitability.  High response to marketing campaigns.  More effective investment of resources.  The use of interactive technology allows businesses to deal with the unique purchasing, lifestyle, and behavioral histories of each customer – businesses now have the capability of one-to-one marketing. The end results are that the consumer gains better value and the company engenders continued customer loyalty.


The Complete Campaign

Today’s advertisers usually create campaigns that fit into their integrated marketing communication program. They don’t create only an ad by itself. The four components (creative brief, brand equity probe, strategic options and recommended plan, and brand equity audit) are synthesized into an action plan for developing all communications for a brand – it must maintain a consistent identity. Advertisers’ main concern is reaching every consumer’s “touch point.”

A campaign versus an ad: there is no magic time frame for a campaign, but generally, campaigns are designed to run over a longer period of time than an individual ad. The average length of a regional or national campaign is about 17 months, although it is not uncommon for a campaign to last 3 or 4 years – a few have lasted much longer.

Changing campaign risk: there is never a guarantee that the next campaign will be as strong, let alone stronger, than the original. Although, some believe that most successful campaigns need refreshing over time – people change, products change, and markets change. Adding online advertising to a television campaign boosts brand awareness, but the inclusion does little to impact sales. Broadcast ads upped the linking of brand to a message or value proposition by nearly 13 points, the web added 7 points. Television spots increased the ability to influence purchase decisions by nearly 6 points, whereas the web only contributed a mere 0.4 point incremental boost. The web was stronger at raising awareness and association than influencing purchasing decisions.

Campaign Diversity: many campaigns have purposely highlighted models with racially indeterminate features – “Generation E.A.: Ethnically Ambiguous.” Good advertising starts with a clear understanding of both short and long-term marketing goals

Situation Analysis: establishes a current benchmark or starting point. It has two orientations: the past and the present. The situation analysis is the first step in developing a campaign.  The Product: successful advertising and marketing begin with a good product or service. At this point, we need to analyze our product’s strengths and weaknesses objectively. Among the questions usually asked are the following:

  1. What are the unique consumer benefits?
  2. What is the value of the product relative to the proposed price?
  3. Are adequate distribution channels available?
  4. Can quality control be maintained?

Prime prospect identification: the next step is to identify our prime prospects and determine if there are enough of them to market the product profitably. We also must identify the prime prospects problem: What are their needs and wants in the product or product type?

Competitive atmosphere and marketing climate: we carefully review every aspect of the competition, including direct and indirect competitors. Recognizing the market climate during the recession in 2009, Subway promoted their $5 sandwiches and the promotion was so successful it became a campaign.

Creative objective and Strategy: we begin to select those advertising themes and selling appeals rhar are most likely to move our prime prospects to action. Advertising motivates people by appealing to their problems, desires, and goals – it is not creative if it does not sell. Once we establish an objective, er are ready to implement the copy strategy by outlining how the creative plan will contribute to accomplishing our predetermined goals:

  1. Determine the specific claim that will be used in the advertising copy (if more than one, list in order of priority)
  2. Consider various advertising executions
  3. In the final stage of the creative process, develop the advertising copy and production

Continuity: term used to describe the relationship of one ad to another ad throughout a campaign. This similarity or continuity can be visual, verbal, aural, or attitudinal.  Visual similarity:  all print ads in a campaign should use the same type face or virtually the same layout format; stress continuity not sameness. Another device is for all ads in a campaign to use the same spokesperson or continuing character – strong continuity strengths communication.  Verbal similarity:  Great words and great strategies make great campaigns. “What can Brown do for you” UPS “Mmm mm Good” Campbell’s  Aural similarity: the same sound effect can make a campaign very distinctive “This is Tom Bodett for Motel 6”.  Attitudinal Similarity: some ads express a consistent attitude toward a brand and the people using it. Nike is a strong brand name and its signifies status, glamour, competitive edge – its presence and identity is so strong that many people want to connect with the brand.

Media Objectives: creative planning and media planning have the same foundations – marketing strategy and prospect identification – and they cannot be isolated from each other. Media attempts to be “media neutral.” The media plan involves three primary areas: strategy, tactics, and scheduling.

Media strategy: at the initial stages of media planning, the general approach and role of media in the finished campaign are determined:

i.     Prospect identification.

ii.    Timing. The media planner must consider many aspects of timing, including media closing dates, production time required for ads and commercials, campaign length, number of exposures desired

iii.     Creative considerations. Media and creative teams must accommodate each other. Media has to be creative in finding a way to reach and engage consumers

Media tactics: media planner decides on media vehicles and the advertising weight each is to receive.

Media scheduling: actual media schedule and justification are develope

The promotion plan: discussed very early, and its relationship to the advertising plan is determined. Promotion activities may involve dealer displays, in-store promotions, premiums, cooperative advertising, and coupon offers

Other Integrated Elements: don’t forget the importance of every aspect of your IMC functioning as one voice. You need to maintain focus on the brand or positioning throughout the marketing mix.

Getting the Campaign approved: for approval, it is wise to present a statement of the company’s marketing goals. Next, the philosophy and strategy of the advertising are described, together with the reasons for believing that the proposed plan will help attain those objectives. Not until then are the ads or commercials presented.

Research – Posttests: the final part of a campaign entails testing its success. First, the expected results are defined in specific and measurable terms. Then, the actual research is conducted to see if these goals were met. The pretest is intended not only to provide a benchmark for the campaign but also to determine reasonable goals for future advertising.

onomic, Social, and Legal effects of Advertising

The History of Advertising Criticism

I.    The Era of exaggerated Claims (1865 – 1900)

II.   The Era of Public Awareness (1900 – 1965)

III.  The Era of Social Responsibility (1965 – present)

A number of studies indicate that buyers support those companies and brands that have gained a reputation for being good citizens and actively promote their good works.   


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