Strivastawan, Sherva, and Fahey

PPM-Product Development Management (Brand mand management, brand extensions, line extensions,
SCM-Supply Chain Management, place but less important
CRM-Customer Relationship Management-customer satisfaction

Strategic Issues in Marketing Implementation
Marketing Implementation is critical to the success of any firm because it is responsible for putting the marketing strategy into action.  Implementation refers to the “how” part of the marketing plan.  Some of this misunderstanding stems from the fact that marketing strategies almost always turn out differently than expected.  In fact, all firms have two strategies: their intended strategy and a realized strategy.  Intended marketing strategy is what the firm wants to happen-is is the firm’s planned strategic choices that appear in the marketing plan itself.  The realized marketing strategy, on the other hand, is the strategy that actually takes place.

The link between Planning and Implementation
Many of the problems of marketing implementation occur because of its relationship to strategic planning.  The three most common issues in this relationship are interdependence, evolution, and separation.

The content of the marketing plan determines how it will be implemented, it is also true that how the marketing strategy is to be implemented determines the content of the marketing plan.
Employee training programs
Profit sharing
Employee training, as a tool of implementation, can also dictate the content of the firm’s strategy.
Stock options

Important environmental factors constantly change.  Because planning and implementation are intertwined, each must constantly evolve to fit the other.  Just as strategy often results in form trial and error, so does marketing implementation.  These rapid changes require that firms be flexible in both marketing strategy and implementation.

The ineffective implementation of marketing strategy is often a self-generated problem that stesm from the way the planning and implementation are carried out in most firms.  Believing that frontline managers and employees will be excited about the marketing strategy and motivated to implement it.  Managers and employees often fail to identify with the firms’ goals and objectives, and thus fail to fully understand the marketing strategy.

The elements of Marketing Implementation
Shared Goals and values among all employees within the firm are the “glue” of successful implementation because they bind the entire organization together as a single, functioning unit.  Firms such as FedEx, Google, and ESPN, are well-known for their efforts to ensure that employees share and are committed to corporate goals and values.  The primary means of creating shared goals and values is through employee training and socialization programs.  Some experts have argued that creating shared gaols and values is the single most important element of implementation because it stimulates organizational commitment so that employees become more motivated to implement the marketing strategy, achieve the firms goals and objectives, and serve more fully the needs of the frim’s customers.

Marketing Structure
Organizing a firm’s marketing activities.  Marketing structures establish formal lines of authority, as well as the division of labor within the marketing function.  One of the most important decisions that firms make is how to divide and integrate marketing responsibilities.  This decision typically comes down to the question of centralization versus decentralization.  In a centralized marketing structure, the top of the marketing hierarchy coordinates and manages all marketing activities and decisions.  The front line of the firm coordinates and manages marketing activities and decisions.  Centralized Structures are very cost-efficient and effective in ensuring standardization within the marketing program.  Walmart or Dell.  Decentralized marketing structures have the important advantage of placing marketing decisions closer to the front line, where serving customers is the number one priority.  By decentralizing marketing decisions, frontline managers can be creative and flexible, allowing them to adapt to changing market conditions.  Firms that employ a strategy of customer intimacy, such as Ritz-Carlton or Nordstom.  The righ marketing structure will depend on the specific firm, the nature of its internal and external environments, and its chosen marketing strategy.

Systems and Processes
Organizational systems and processes are collections of work activities that absorb a variety of inputs to create information and communication outputs that ensure the consistent day-to-day operation of the firm.  Examples include information systems, strategic planning, capital budgeting, procurement, order fulfillment, manufacturing, quality control, and performance measurement.

Tangible Resources include financial resources, manufacturing capacity, facilities, and equipment.  Although not quite as obvious, intangible resources such as marketing expertise, customer loyalty, brand equity, corporate goodwill, and external relationships/strategic alliances are equally important.
A critical and hones evaluation of available resources during the planning phase can help ensure that the marketing strategy and marketing implementation are within the realm of possibility.  This makes the communication aspects of the actual marketing plan document critical to the success of the strategy.

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