The Psychological contract is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.  Each individual has the effort, skills, ability, time, and loyalty to contribute to an organization that’s pays and has career opportunities (tangible rewards)/job status and security (intangible rewards).

Major personality constructs of interest:

  • Agreeableness-person’s ability to get along with others
  • Conscientiousness-most consistent personality to leadership effectiveness; number of goals on which a person focuses
  • Negative Emotionality/Stability-the extent to which a person is poised calm, resilient, and secure
  • Extraversion-a person’s comfort level with relationships
  • Openness-A person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests

Components of an attitude:

An Affective component reflects the feelings and emotions an individual has toward a situation.  The Cognitive component is derived from perceived knowledge.  Behavioral intentional component is how a person expects to behave in a given situation.

Work Related Interests:

The attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work is job satisfaction.; influenced by personal, group, and organizational factors; high levels of job satisfaction don’t always lead to high job performance.  Most people are dissatisfied when absent from work more often, experience stress, which disrupts coworkers, and are continually looking for another job.  Satisfied workers are absent from work less often, makes positive contributions, and stay with the organization

Organizational Commitment is the attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization itself.  A person with a high level of reward themselves as true members of the organization, overlook minor sources of dissatisfaction, see themselves as remaining a member of the organization.  A person with a low level sees themselves as outsiders, express more dissatisfaction about things, and don’t see themselves as long-term members of the organization.

Emotional Intelligence is the extent to which people are self-aware, or having the capacity for being aware of how they are feeling by tuning into one’s emotions.  A person can manage their emotions to balance anxiety, fear, and anger so that they do no overly interfere with getting things accomplished.  They can motivate themselves and remain optimistic to continue striving in the face of setbacks, barriers, and failures with explanatory style.  People express empathy to understand how others are feeling and possess social skills to get along with others and to establish positive relationships High EQ perform better on jobs that require interaction and directing others; can be developed and not biologically biased.

Causes of stress can be related inside and outside of the workplace.  Task demands are quick decisions, incomplete information for decisions, and critical decisions or the task itself. Physical demands such as temperature extremes, poorly designed offices, and threats to health can be associated with the job setting.  Your role demand in the areas of role conflict, role ambiguity, a set of expected behaviors associated with a position in a group or organization.  Finally, interpersonal demands on group pressures, leadership styles, and conflicting personalities; stressors associated with relationships that confront people in organizations

The consequences of stress can create a negative Personal Behavioral through smoking, alcoholism, overeating, and drug abuse.  They can create physiological-sleep disturbances, depression.  They can also create a medical problem such as a heart disease, stroke, backaches, ulcers, and skin conditions.  Finally they can create negative work related to poor quality work output and lower productivity, faulty decisions and disrupted relationships, withdrawal through indifference and absenteeism, irritation and difficulty in getting along, job dissatisfaction, low morale, and a lack of commitment

A Type A Personality is extremely competitive, very devoted to work, and has a strong sense of time urgency, is impatient and can be easily hostile or angry towards people.


Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.  “Effort” is a measure of intensity, organizational goals, and need.  It is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive and is the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways

The Needs theory states that we have basic needs and wants to be satisfied.  There can be a need or deficiency depended upon a person be more motivated in deficient state.  Humans search for ways to satisfy need and have a choice of behavior to satisfy a need.  After an evaluation of need satisfaction, the determination of future needs and search/choice for satisfaction.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Self-actualization-realizing one’s potential for continued growth and individual development; achievement and a challenging job; “Be all that you can be”
  • Esteem is the need for a positive self-image and self-respect, and the need for recognition and respect from others; status and job title
  • Love (Social Needs)-social processes; friendship and Friends at work
  • Safety and Security-secure physical and emotional environment; pension plan and stability
  • Physiological-food, sex, and air, which represent basic issues of survival and biological function, base salary

Herzberg-people’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors-motivation factors and hygiene factors.  Both are on two distinct continuums.  The motivation satisfaction is accomplished by Achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth; specifically related to work content.  The Hygiene Dissatisfaction is accomplished by supervisors, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay and security, company policies and administration; related to work environment


There are many needs that a person has.  This includes the need for achievement or the desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past; similar to agreeableness in management; curvier relationship curve.  There is the need for affiliation or the desire for human companionship and acceptance.  Finally there is the need for power or the desire to be influential in a group and be in control on one’s environment.

Adam’s theory of inequity focuses on individual feelings of treatment in comparison with others.  The inputs are what you bring to job (skills, efforts, attitudes, and beliefs) Outcomes, Weights, Comparative Others-someone who sees how we are doing (Ex: Co-worker), Input/Outcome ratio, Consequences of inequity

Person                                                Comparative Other



Expectancy theories of motivation assume people are motivated to work when they expect to be able to achieve.  Combination of forces determines behavior, individuals decide their behavior, individuals have different needs, and goals, decide among alternatives whether behavior leads to desired outcomes; motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it.  Our efforts are expectancies perceived effort-performance, profitability.

If you put in work you can get the outcome.  The First level of outcome: performance; instrumentality-perceived performance-reward profitability (What you need for an A) If you do performance: Boss’s character, feedback, and integrity.  The second level outcome is positive and negative; valence-how much an individual values a particular outcome: perceived value of rewards (Keeping/Getting Hope).  Management uses motivation to effect employee’s performance and outcome.

Locke & Latham’s Goals Model:

Challenge: Goal difficulty is the extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort; more motivational, Goal Clarity is specificity and precision of the goal, or Self-efficacy.

  • Moderators: ability, goal commitment is the extent to which she or he is personally interested in reaching the goal, feedback, task complexity; explains difference in effects of one variable on another (under what conditions are we going to see a stronger relationship between setting and performance; need ability and able to buy into goal
  • Mediators: Directions, effort, persistence-in face of obstacles; cause of mechanism and why/How do we improve performance; directs you what to do and gives you strategies; increased efforts
  • Performance
  • Rewards-performance is defined, evaluated, and rewarded; merit pay and incentive plans; Gain-sharing programs and Scanlon plan
  • Consequences-punishment


Task-related behaviors of leader are that they adapt to demands of situation, sets direction, sets high performance standards, takes risks, scans and interprets environment (SWOT), provides frequent feedback, performs consistently, and focuses on needs of customers.

Relationship oriented behaviors of leaders are that they align people with goals, mobilize people to achieve performance standards, builds synergy among people, inspires, enables the satisfaction of higher-order needs, provides meaning for people, encourages and supports, promotes principles and values.

Contributions of Fiedler’s Contingency Theory proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.  Assumes a certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations, leaders do not readily changer leadership styles-matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required; assumers style and personality

Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) Questionnaire determines leadership style be measuring responses to 18 contrasting adjectives High score is a relationship-oriented leadership style; choose employee least wanting to work.  Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: lender-member relations-flexibility/level of cohesiveness and sense of quality of relationships in teams, favorableness and style of leader, task structure-degree to which the group’s task is well defined/structured, and position power-power vested in the leader’s position to punish and reward.  Right match between leader and orientation (Once we have a preference, we are stuck with it).

Situational Leadership theory argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the level of the follower’s readiness; when you use selling; based on relationship and task behavior, but the level to which you focus on should depend on follower’s readiness to be influenced by you as an employee, Manager dictates but you can choose which one.

Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader

Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task

Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent

Style to readiness:

  • Delegating-don’t micromanage; able and willing=Expertise
  • Participating-Increase relationship, decrease task; able and unwilling=Thorns Ex: Older employees
  • Selling-Increase task, increase relationship, goal setting; unable and willing=doesn’t name skill level (competence) Ex: New Grads

Telling –high task, decrease relationship; unable and unwilling=bad hiring, change in what company is doing

House’s path-goal theory states the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to those rewards.  Leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.  Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation: directive leader, supportive leader, participative leader, and achievement-oriented leader

Implications for leaders can cause Highly routine tasks/supportive styles, Unstructured tasks/directive style, unstructured tasks w/ needs for esteem, actualization/participation style, Employees who have discretion over what, when and how of performing a task/Achievement-oriented style

Environmental characteristics: Task structure-Fielder and work group/Work group

Personal characteristics: Perceived ability and locus of control

Directive leader-lets subordinates know what is expected of them, gives guidance and direction, and schedules work.

A Supportive leader is friendly and approachable, showing concern for subordinate welfare, and treating members as equals.  A Participative leader is consulting with subordinates, soliciting suggestions, and allowing participation in decision-making.  A Achievement-oriented leader is setting challenging goals, expecting subordinates to perform at high levels, encouraging subordinates, and showing confidence in subordinates’ abilities.

Decision-Making Styles:

  • Decide-the manager makes the decision alone an then announces or “sells” it to the group
  • Consult (Individually)-manager presents the program to group members individually, obtains their suggestions, and the makes the decision
  • Consult (Group)-the manager presents the problem to group members at a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision
  • Facilitate-the manager presents the problem to the group at a meeting, defines the problem and its boundaries, and then facilitates group member discussion as they make the decision
  • Delegate-the manager allows the group to define for itself for itself the exact nature and parameters of the problem and then to develop a solution


The Leader is concerned with tasks and people.  Commitment is achieved via involvement.  The leader deals with problems by solving them and the leader’s plans are short range.  The leader forgoes relationships that are steady, based on defined roles.

Transformational leadership: goes beyond ordinary expectations by transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning experiences, and inspiring new ways of thinking; inspires people to achieve

The leader is concerned with ideas and vision.  Commitment is achieved via inspiration.  The leader deals with problems by discovering them.  The leader’s plans are long range.  The leader forges relationships that are intuitive, empathetic, and dynamic.

  1. Idealized influence-charisma; followers identify with these leaders and want to emulate them.  Leaders have high standards of conduct and do the right thing.  Build trust
  2. Inspirational Motivation-Inspire; others to become committed to the shared vision; Inspire followers to shed self-interest for greater good
  3. Intellectual Stimulation-stimulates followers to be creative and innovative; to challenge own beliefs and values
  4. Individualized Situation-Creates supportive climate; listens carefully to individual needs of followers

Substitutes for Leadership:

Follower characteristics is the ability, experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence, and indifference toward organizational rewards.  Are your job characteristics routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs?  Finally organization characteristics can explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups, inflexibility

Chapter 13:  Groups/Teams

Groups are two or more people having common interests or objectives.  These can include individual leadership, individual accountability, and individual work products.  A group has two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal with similarities and gathering of people.

Teams are a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.  There is shared leadership, mutual accountability, and collective work products.  Teams are a group of workers that functions as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities.

Types of teams

A Problem-solving team is the most popular team type; compromises knowledge workers who gather to solve a problem and then disband.  A Management team consists mainly of managers from various functional areas who coordinate the work among other teams.  A work team is responsible for the daily work of the organization; when empowered, they are self-managed teams; example of student governments, sports, departments in universities.  A Virtual team is a new type of team that interacts by computer; member enters and leaves the network as needed and may take turns serving as leader.  A Quality circle is declining in popularity, quality circles, compromising of workers and supervision, meet intermittently to discuss workplace problems.

Stages of team development:

Form group members to try to get to know each other and establish a common understanding and background to getting to know other members through that barrier.  Storm groups in conflict members resist being controlled by the group and disagreements arise concerning leadership on the group; where most bad groups fail.  Norm your group members to develop close ties, feelings and camaraderie to allow group members to share a common purpose.  When you really start to understand goal and how to get back.  Performance of group members is seen by the work toward achieving their goals.

Characteristics of groups/teams:

The role is the part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals.  A Task-specialist is a role concentrating on getting the group’s tasks accomplished.  A Socioemotional role is providing social and emotional support to others on the team.  Role structures are the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept; are a result of role episodes in which the expected role is translated and defined into the enacted role.

Role ambiguity occurs when the role sent is unclear; set role is unclear and individual does not know what is expected of him or her.  Role conflict occurs when the messages and cues compromising the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive

  • Interrole conflict-the result of a conflict between roles
  • Intrarole conflict-caused by conflicting demands from different sources
  • Intrasender conflict-arises when a single source needs contradictory messages
  • Person-role conflict-discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs

Role overload occurs when role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities; happens to students allot.  Norms are standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members.  Define the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

  • Norm generalization-the norms of one group cannot always be generalized to another group; uga football v movies
  • Norm variation-norms and their application vary within a group or team; group consensus is that is ok
  • Norm conformity-conform as a response to: (GAIT)

Group or team pressure to conform to group behavior

An initial (ambiguous) stimulus prompting group behavior.  Individual traits that reflect their propensity to conform.  The influence of situational factors (group size and unanimity)

  • Individual responses to norm conformity: adopt the norms of the group; try to obey the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality
  • Socialization-norm conformity that occurs when a person makes the transition from being an outsider to being an insider in the organization
  • Cohesiveness-the extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group

Factors affecting cohesiveness to increase include Intergroup competition, personal attraction, favorable evaluation, agreement on goals, and interaction.  To reduce factors affecting cohesiveness include Group size, disagreement on goals, intragroup competition, domination, and unpleasant experiences.

Conflict is a disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations.  There is an optimal level of conflict in organizations: too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacks innovation and underperforms, too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-cooperation dominate, and the organization suffers from low performance, a moderate level of conflict fosters motivation, creativity, innovation, and initiative and can raise performance

Informal Leader-a person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or group: may also be the formal leader for the group or may supplement the formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles, draw on referent or expert powers as leaders

Formal leader is a person elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by the group members; has been formally appointed or recognized by the organization as the leader for the group


  • Interdependency
  • Competition
  • Different goals and Activities
  • Personalities

Interpersonal conflict-personality clash-two people distrust each other’s motives, dislike each other, or for some other reason simply cannot get along, differing behavior perceptions, competitiveness.  Intergroup conflict is the interdependence, different goals, competition for scarce resources.  Conflict between the organization and the Environment-conflict with competition, conflict with consumer groups, conflict with employees.  Consequences of conflict include Hostility, withdrawal, increased Motivation, and increased performance.


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