Design is an iterative process that seeks to integrate meaning with form.

Elements of a Brief:

  1. Review of Process to Date
  2. Industry Trends
  3. Key Stakeholders
  4. Internal Audit
  5. Competitive Audit
  6. Interview findings
  7. Research findings
  8. Brand Architecture
  9. Brand Attributes
  10. Brand Strategy
  11. Goals
  12. Closure and next steps

The Naming process is a complex, creative, and iterative process that requires experience in linguistics, marketing, research, and trademark law.

Revisit positioning–>Get organized–>Create naming criteria–>Brainstorming–>Initial screening–>Contextual targeting–>Testing–>Final legal screen

In order to design a symbol, you must examine meaning, attributes, acronyms, inspiration, history, form, counter form, abstract, pictorial, letterform, wordmark, combination, time, space, light, still, motion transition, perspective, reality, fantasy, straight, curve, intersection and patterns.

Did you know that 60% of the decision to buy a product is based on color.  Brand color should be assigned to a symbol, secondary color assigned to logotype, a business descriptor, or tagline.  Make sure that you have positive connotations in Latin America, China, U.S., etc, as color symbols can vary internationally.  Refer to Color Theory with warm, cool, values, hews, tints, shades, and complementary colors.

Typography needs to be flexible, easy to use, have clarity, and be legible.  Examine serif, sans serif, size, weight, curves, rhythm, descenders, supports information hierarchy, ascenders, capitalization, headlines, subheads, text, callouts, captions, bulleted lists, leading, line length, letter spacing, numerals, symbols, quotation marks

Identity Design Process

A Brand in essence is a promise, big idea, the reputation and expectations that reside in each customer’s mind about a product or a company.  Every Brand has touchpoints too:

  • Services                    Speeches                        Presentations         Word of mouth
  • Products                   Networking                   Telephone               Trade shows
  • Employees                Proposals                      E-mails                    Voicemails
  • Direct mail               Affinity marketing       Civic marketing      Advertising
  • Public relations       Sales promotion           Newsletters            Ephemera
  • Public affairs           Publications                  Web banners           Letterheads
  • Business forms        Signage                           Packaging               Exhibits
  • Websites                  Business cards               Publicity

Brand Identity that supports, expresses, communicates, synthesizes, and visualizes brand are impressive.  A brand identity needs to be mnemonic as a device such as pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in remembering something.

Sequence of Cognition:






Brand Identity has the ideals of vision, meaning, coherence, sustainability, value, commitment, flexibility, authenticity, and differentiation.


    • Nike Abstract Swoosh
    • Mitsubishi: 3 Corporate responsibility to society, integrity and fairness, and international understanding through trade
    • CBS Eye

Brand Architecture

Hierarchy of brands within a single company and mirror of marketing strategy.

  1. Monolithic Brand Architecture
  2. Subrand/Subsidiary Brand Architecture
  3. Endorsed Brand Architecture
  4. Pluralistic Brand Architecture

Brand Attributes Examples

World-class, intelligent, prestigious, proud, individualistic, smart, congenial but competitive, resourceful, rigorous, innovative, analytical, passionate, ambitious, having tradition.


Be short and differentiated from competitors by being unique.  Taglines can capture brand essence and positioning.  It must be easy to say and remember have no negative connotations.  It is typically displayed in small font as well as should be protected and trademarked.  A tagline evokes emotional response and it’s difficult to create.  Types of taglines include Imperative, Descriptive, Superlative, Provocative, and Specific.

Brand Identity Process

Brand identity assets include names, symbols, logotypes, taglines, slogans, packaging and product design, color, and sound.  Skills required for changing brand identity are branding, public relations, communications, identity design, production, and organizational management.  Branding guides, Online branding, marketing and sales toolkits, thought books, identity standards manuals. Branding guides are used to announce the compelling reasons for a new identity and to build awareness of the company brand, and its importance to the future and success of the company.

  1. Research and Analysis: Clarify vision, strategies, goals, and values.  Research stakeholders’ needs and perceptions.  Conduct an internal, competitive, technology, and legal audit.  Interview key management.  Evaluate existing brands and brand architecture.
  2. Brand Strategy: Synthesize learning.  Clarify brand strategy, develop a positioning platform.  Co-create brand attributes, present brand brief, and create a naming strategy.
  3. Design Concept: Visualize the future, design brand identity, finalize brand architecture, examine applicability, and present visual strategy.
  4. Brand Expression: Finalize design solution, initiate trademark protection, prioritizes and design applications, design identity program, and apply brand architecture.
  5. Managing Brand assets: Build synergy around new brand, develop launch strategy and plan, launch internally first, launch externally, develop standards and guidelines, and nurture brand champions.  Have a deployment or internal launch; communicating with employees about the new brand identity.  Then release Standards and Guidelines book for all employees to read.  Finally, launch the new brand identity externally to key stakeholders.

Interview Questions for Stakeholders

  1. What is your mission?  What are your 3 most important goals?
  2. Why was this company created?
  3. Describe your products or services?
  4. Who is your target market?
  5. How do you want to be perceived by each stakeholder?
  6. What is your competitive advantage?
  7. Who is your competition? Who is a competitor you admire most and why?
  8. How do you market your product/services?
  9. What are trends/changes that affect your industry
  10. Where will you be in 5 years?
  11. How do you measure success?
  12. What values and beliefs unify your personnel and drive their performance?
  13. What are potential barriers to success of product/service?
  14. Place yourself in future
  15. What would you communicate about your company in three adjectives?

Perceptual Mapping

  • Understanding: Vision, values, mission, value, proposition, culture, target market, segments, stakeholder perceptions, services, products, infrastructure, marketing strategy, competition, trends, pricing, distribution, research, environment, economic, socio/political, strengths/weaknesses, opportunities/threats
  • Clarifying: Core values, brand attributes, competitive advantage
  • Positioning: Differentiation, value proposition, business category
  • Brand Essence: Central idea, unifying concept, key messages, voice and tone

Design Processes

Letterhead Design Process

Clarify use–>Determine Need–>Get Content–>Develop Design–>Identity paper–>Determine production method–>Manage Production (Standard letterhead size is 8 ½ x ll used in Canada, Mexico, and US.)

Business Card Design Process

Clarify positioning–>Determine need–>Finalize content–>Develop Design–>Identity Paper–>Determine production method–>Manage production

Brochure System Design Process

Revisit big picture–>Design a cover system–>Determine Typographic System, Determine artwork–>Design color family–>Choose standard formats–>Choose paper–>Develop prototypes–>Develop guidelines and standard formats (4 x 9, 6 x 9, 8.5 x 11)

Evidence that effective retail signage increases revenues, and intelligent way finding systems support and enhance the experience of a brand.  Signage is a mass communications medium that works 24/7 and can attract new customers, influence purchasing decisions, and increase sales.

Vehicle Design Process

Designers need to consider scale, legibility, distance, surface color, and the effects of movement, speed, and light.  They also need to consider the life of the vehicle, the durability of the signage medium, and safety requirements and regulations that may vary state by state.  Vehicle types need to be planned, designed, determined, examined, and then implement.  Include public, buses, trains, ferries, private, container trucks, delivery trucks, helicopters, planes, motorcycles, jitneys, hot-air balloons, and blimps.

Uniform Design Process

Aprons, belts, pants, shorts, skirts, turtleneck, golf shirt, T-shirt, vests, neckwear, outerwear, rainwear, blazers, blouses, bows, gloves, boots, helmets, shoes, socks, tights, ID badges, accessories, scarves, fleece, wind wear, visors, baseball caps, scrub apparel, patient grows, lab coats.  Public safety, security, transportation, couriers, bank tellers, volunteers, Health care, hospitality, retail, restaurants, sports teams, sports facilities, laboratories, special events, entertainment, universities, schools.  Methods are off the shelf, custom design, custom fabrication, embroidery, screen-printing, patches, and stripping.

Legal Design Process

Establish Legal Needs–>Establish Legal Resources–>Decide type of search–>Conduct Preliminary Research-Conduct comprehensive research–>conduct registration–>monitor and educate

Use USPTO as a source.  R means you are federally register and ™ is Trademark, or claim of ownership of goods and packaging.  Make sure to also get a SM or Service Mark. Intellectual property includes copyrights and patents.

Ephemera/SWAG Design Process

Objects with a short life, or more simply put, stuff.  Pens, pencils, highlighters, mugs, commuter cups, steins, coasters, apothecary jars, sports bottles, portfolios, pad holders, CD cases, folders, pocket planners, letter openers, mouse pads, screen sweeps, notepads, memo cubes, 3M Post-its, magnets, rulers, balloons, tins, yo-yos Frisbees, playing cards, stress balls, beach balls, wooden nickels, hand flyers, lanyards, neck wallets, key chains tools, flashlights, x-stores, clocks, watches, globes, calculators, calendars, totes, luggage tags, sports duffels, golf balls, golf tees, Golf Shirts, Baseball caps, ties, Portfolios, pens, scarves, golf balls, memo cubes, mouse pads, customer store website, golf umbrellas, visors, lapel pins, t-shirts, golf shirts, denim shirts, sweatshirts, parkas, rain jackets, and throws, alarm clocks, albums, aprons, auto/travel stuff, awards, awnings, badge holders, badges and buttons, bag clips, bags, balls, bandannas, banks, banners/pennants, bar stuff, barbecue stuff, barometers/hygrometers, baskets, bathrobes, batteries, beauty aids, belt buckles, beverage holders, bibs, binoculars, blankets, bookends, bookmarks, books, bottle holders, bottles, bottle stoppers, bowls, boxer shorts, boxes, breath mints, briefcases, buckets, bulletin boards, bumper stickers, business card holders, calendar pads, cameras, camping equipment, candle holders, candles, candy, canisters, cans, caps/hats, carbines, carafes, cards, certificates, chairs, Christmas decorations, cigars, clipboards, clothing, coffeepots, coin holders, coins/medallions, coloring books, combs, compact discs, compasses, computer stuff, cookware, corkscrews, cosmetics coupon keepers, covers, crayons, crystal products, cushions, decals, decanters, decorations, desk stuff, dials, diaries/journals, dice, dishes, dispensers, doctored/druggist aids, dog tags, drink stirrer/sticks, drink ware, easels, electronic devices, emblems, embroidery, emergency first aid kits, envelopes, erasers, exercise/fitness, eyeglasses, eyeglasses 3D, fans, figurines, flags, flasks, flowers, flying saucers, flyswatters, foam novelties, food/beverages, frames, games, gauges, gavels, gift baskets, gift cards/wrap, glass specialties, gloves, glow products, goggles, greeting cards, handkerchiefs, hangers, hardware tools, headbands, headphones, headrests, holders, holograms, horseshoes, hotel amenities, ice buckets, ice packs, ice scrapers, ID holders, inflatable’s, invitations, jackets, jewelry, jewelry boxes, kaleidoscopes, kazoos, key cases, kitchen stuff, kites, labels, lamps/lanterns, lapel pins, lawn/garden stuff, leather specialties, list, license plate frames, lighters, light, lint removers, lip balm, lipsticks, liquid motion products, locks, lunch boxes/kits, magnifiers, map/atlases, markers, masks, matches, mats, measuring devices, medals, medical information products, megaphones, membership cards, memo pads, menus/menu cover, metal specialties, microphones, miniatures, money clips, money converters, musical specialties,  nameplates, napkin rings, noisemakers, office supplies, openers, organizers, ornaments, packaging, pajamas, pamphlets, paper specialties, paperweights, part favors, pedometers, pepper mills, pet stuff, phone calling cards, phones, phone stuff, photo cards, photo cubes, physical/therapeutic aids, picnic coolers, pictures/paintings, pillows, piñatas, points, pitchers, place mats, planners, plants, plaques, plates, pointers, poker chips, postcards, puppets, purses, puzzles/tricks, radio, recorders, recycled products, reflectors, religious goods, ribbons, rubber stamps, safety products, sandals, scarves, scissors, scoops/scrapers, scratch-off card, seals, folding seats, seeds, sewing stuff, shirts, shoes, shovels, signs and displays, slippers, snow globes, soap, socks, sponges, spoons, squeegees, stamp pads, stamps, staple removers, staplers, stones, stopwatches, stuffed animals, sun catchers, sun visors, sunglasses, sweaters, tablecloths, tags, tape measures, tattoos, teapots, telescopes, thermometers, tiaras/crowns, ties, tiles, timers, tissues, toolkits, toothbrushes, top/spinners, toys/novelties, tryst, trophies, umbrellas, uniforms, USB/flash drives, utensils, valuable paper holders, vests, vinyl plastic specialties, voice recorders, wallets, wands/scepters, watch fobs, water, weather instruments, whistles, wind socks, wine stuff, wristbands, writs rests, zipper pulls

Branding Guides

Standards Content, Foreword, Message from CEO, Our mission and values, Our brand, The role of brand identity, How to use the guidelines, Brand identity elements, Brandmark, Logotype, Signature, Tagline, Name in text, Incorrect usage of elements, Nomenclature, Communicative vs. legal names, Corporate, Division, Business unit, Product and service trademarks, Color, Brand color system, Default color system, Supporting color system, Signature color options, Incorrect use of color, Signatures, Corporate signature, Signature variations, Incorrect signature usage, Subsidiary signatures, Product signature, Signature with tagline, Incorrect tagline treatment, Clear Space around signature, Signature sizes, Typography, Typeface family, Supporting typefaces, Special display faces, Typefaces for word processing, U.S. business papers, Corporate letterhead, Typing template, Division letterhead, Personalized letterhead, Second Sheet, #10 envelope, Monarch letterhead, Memo template, Business cards for corporate, Business cards for sales force, Fax electronic templates, Notepads, New releases, Mailing labels, Window envelope, Large mailing envelope, Announcements, Invitations, CD Labels, International business papers, A-4 letterhead, A-4 personalized letterhead, A-4 business envelope, Business Cards, Digital Media, Website, Intranet, Extranet, Architecture, Interface, Content, Color, Typefaces, Imagery, Forms, Form elements, Vertical and Horizontal, Form grid, Purchase order, Invoice, Shipping, Marketing materials, Voice and tone, Imagery, Signature placement, Folder, Covers, Recommended grids, Brochure system, size variations, Mastheads, Product sheets, Direct mail, Newsletters, Posters, Postcards, Advertising , Advertising signatures, Tagline usage, Signature placement on ads, Typography, Television advertising grid, Presentations and proposals, Covers vertical, Covers horizontal, Covers with windows, Interior grid, PowerPoint templates, PowerPoint imagery, Exhibits, Trade Show booth, Banners, Point of purchase, Nametags, Signage, External signage, Internal signage, Color, Typography, Materials and finishes, Lighting considerations, Fabrication guidelines, Company flag, Vehicle , Identification, Vans, Cars, Buses, Planes, Trucks, Packaging, Legal considerations, Package sizes, Package grids, Product signatures, Labeling system, Boxes,  Bags, Cartons, Uniforms, Summer, Spring, Winter, Fall, Rain gear, Image library, Photography and illustration, Reproduction files, Brandmark only, signature variations, full-color, one-color, black, white, PC, Mac, Miscellaneous, Whom to contact with questions, frequently asked questions, design inquiries, Clearance process, Legal information, Ordering information.

Types of Graphics

Vector graphics Digital images created in drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, and CorelDraw.  Because they are based on mathematically defined lines and curves, they can be manipulated and scaled without losing reproduction quality.  Vector graphics use the Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format.
Raster or Bitmap Graphics Digital images created, captured, or edited in applications such as Adobe Photoshop.  Because they are constructed as a continuous mapping of pixels, the image cannot be scaled, rotated, or skewed outside of image-editing application without the loss of reproduction quality.
EPS Encapsulated PostScript file can contain vector/and or bitmap graphics.  Preferred file format used for offset printing and with high-end output devices.  Highest quality output and should be used in-house when printing to a printer equipped with or compatible with Adobe PostScript.
TIFF Used for in-house printing when a PostScript output device is unavailable.
GIF Compressed file format used to display graphics and images in HTML for on-screen viewing
JPEG Compressed file format used to display continuous images such as photographs in HTML for on-screen viewing.
BMP A Windows-compatible bit-mapped image file format that allows users to place, view, and laser-print graphics from their desktop.

Graphic Arts Production

Printing is a means of graphic communications and the reproduction of quantities of images, which can be seen or perceived visually.

EVOLUTION: pictographs–>ideographs–>cuneiforms–>hieroglyphics–>alphabet

Web presses are used almost exclusively by gravure and have been a dominant factor in lithographic printing since 1954.  Papermaking was invented in China.  Five major printing processes use four different methods of printing.  Letterpress and flexography are relief, gravure is intaglio, lithography is planographic, and screen is porous or stencil printing.  The following are the basic printing process steps:

  1. Sorting and preparing the copy elements for reproduction
  2. The prepress operations of making a design or layout for reproduction, converting the text and assembling them in on a flat for platemaking
  3. Platemaking
  4. Printing
  5. Binding and Finishing
  6. Finishing Distribution

Letterpress is the oldest method of printing, with equipment for short, medium, or long runs.  Printed by the relief method from cast Meta type or plates, duplicate plates or photopolymer plates on which the image or printing areas are raised above the non-printing areas.  Much time is consumed in make-ready, or building up of the press form so that both the light and heavy areas print with the correct impression.  There are four types of presses: platen, flatbed cylinder, rotary and belt.

  1. Flexography-a form of rotary web letterpress using flexible rubber or photopolymer plates and fast-drying solvent or water-based inks fed from an anilox inking system. Major process for printing milk containers, gift-wraps, and shopping bags.  Used highly in packaging industry.
  2. Thermography-process which creates special embossed effects in printing such as stationery, invitations, greeting cards and paper decoration.
  3. Gravure-example of intaglio printing that uses a sunk or depressed surface for the image.  Three types of gravure include conventional, variable area-variable depth, and direct transfer to variable area.    Variable area gravure is used mainly for packaging printing.
  4. Steel-die engraving-intaglio process in which the die is hand or machine cut, or chemically etched to hold ink.
  5. Offset lithography-most popular, uses the planographic method.  Transferring the image from the pate to a rubber blanket before transfer to the paper is called the offset principle.  Major advantage is that the soft rubber surface of the blanket creates a clearer impression on a wide variety of paper surfaces and other materials with both rough and smooth textures with a minimum of press make-ready.
  6. Collotype-Screenless printing; photo gelatin printing reproduces illustrations in continuous tone or without halftone dots.  Collotype is a reproduction process, which uses bichromated gelatin as a printing medium and is capable of high-quality reproduction in runs for 100 to 5,000.  The main advantages are high resolution, no screen moiré and greater purity of color especially in tints and middle tones.
  7. Screen printing/silkscreen-employs a porous screen of fine silk, Nylon, Dacron or stainless steel mounted on a frame.  Versatility is the principal advantage.
  8. Electronic and ink-jet printing-pressure less and plateless printing processes that use computers, electronics, electrostatics/special toners, and inks to produce images.
  9. Copying and duplicating-reprography
  10. Electrophotography-based on electrostatic transfer of toner to and from a charged photoconductor surface.
  11. Offset duplicator-when copies in quantities up to 10,000 are needed, the most economical printing method is the offset duplicator.
  12. Stencil duplicator/mimeograph-forcing ink through a stencil prepared on a typewriter, or spark discharge, produces copies of acceptable quality on plain paper.
  13. Spirit duplicator-master can be made to print more than one color at the same time using special carbon papers, which contain soluble dyed resins of different colors.

TYPE Fundamentals

Typefaces are usually available in 6- to 72-pint, with a complete font in each size.  A font is defined as a complete assortment of any one size and style of type containing all the characters for setting ordinary composition.  The Classifications of typefaces fall under either Oldstyle, Modern, Square Serif, Sans Serif, Script, Text Letters, and Decorative types.

Readability is the ease of reading a printed page, whereas legibility refers to the speed with which each letter or word can be recognized.  Readability refers to the type arrangement; legibility is concerned with type design.  When selecting a typeface, you must consider the texture and finish of paper, color of ink, typeface, size of type, line length, line spacing, etc.

Letterspacing is the amount of space used between letters, negative or positive, either for readability, aesthetics or to fill a certain area.  Negative letterspacing involves the removal of space between letters individually (kerning) or between all letters equally (called white space reduction or tracking).  Line spacing is the amount of space between lines, which is known as leading and is always expressed in points or fractions of a point.

Proofreader’s Marks

Typesetting Methods

Images that are not assembled together must be cross-referenced for easy identification in an operation called keying.

  • Cast metal or hot type composition, typewriter or strike-on composition (sometimes called cold type), photographic typesetting, and electronic printing.
  • Photographic typesetting
  • Scaling-changing the size of the original without changing the ratio of the dimensions.
  • Cropping-to eliminate certain areas from the picture.
  • Opaquing-ownership transparency minimizes role of print in the back of the sheet. Its value is reported as a percentage of transmitted light against a completely opaque body. Common units are General Electric and Photo Volt.

Types of Digital Graphics

  1. Computer art
  2. Synthetic art
  3. Mechanical art
  4. CAD-computer assisted design or drafting is used in technical drawing or illustration
  5. Pixel-picture element
  6. Bit maps-real-world analog to a mosaic made from tiny colored tiles

Dithering, or mixing tiles of the available color of shades of gray achieves the illusion of nonexistent colors or grays.  Pixels let you achieve artistic effects that resemble traditional painting with electronic edit ability.  Photo retouching programs work with bitmaps.

Object-oriented art

Vector oriented graphics are produced by drawing programs and overcome the limitations of bit maps.  Images are composed of mathematically described objects and paths, called vectors.  Color reproduction is broken down into red, green, and blue, which are called additive primaries because three lights of these colors when added together produce white light.  Color separation includes Cyan, magenta, and yellow, which are called subtractive primaries because each represents two additive primaries left under one primary has been subtracted from white light.  Operation of reducing colors and printing a full black in shadow areas is called undercolor removal (UCR).

Color corrections compensate for the spectral errors in inks and exposure errors in photography that are done manually by dot etching, photographically by masking and electronically by scanning.  Dot etching refers to corrections made to increase or reduce floor in local areas of halftone negatives or positives.  Masking is when color corrections are made photographically, which can include both positive and negative masking.  There also exists direct screening and electronic scanning.  Electronic scanning is the system of choice for color separation and correction. Screen angles and Moiré, a secondary and visually evident superimposed pattern created, for example, when two identical patterns on a flat or curved surface are overlaid while displaced or rotated a small amount from one another are commonly used.

Color proofing-purpose is to see if all the elements fit and are in the right color, and how the job will look when it is printed.  Two types exist: press and off-press.  Off-press proofs: overlay, integral and digital.

Retouching, Opaquing and Registering

There are 3 basic types of arrangement of pages for printing: sheetwise, work-and-turn, and work-and-tumble.  Books and magazines are printed in units of a number of papers per sheet called signatures.

Digital Image Processing

Color Electronic Pre-press Systems (CEPS), which integrate all the prepress operations of color separation, correction, retouching and other image modifications, page makeup and imposition.  Desktop Publishing is a concept that covers the creation and production of typographic pages with desktop devices.

Word Processing programs allow the input, editing, formatting and printout of pages of text.  Spreadsheet programs allow columns and rows of numbers and other data to be organized, formulated and mathematically constructed.  Database programs allow the storage of records (individual items) with fields of data to permit sorting and reorganization for list and file management.  Type manipulation programs distort and manipulate type to create special effects, graphic elements and logos.  Page layout programs assemble type, graphics and pictures into page form for typographic printout.

Synthetic art programs allow the creation of art and illustration with sophisticated drawing tools.  Imposition programs take page files and position them on film exposed by large sheet imagesetters to produce imposed plate-ready flats. Color retouching software programs can make changes in color images scanned into the system, integrating other images and modifying color.

Electronic Editing

Scrolling is used to move the memory data up and down to bring the required section onto the screen.  Functions that are performed on the screen within moments of the operator’s request are called foreground functions.  Functions that must take place off-screen are called background functions.  Electronic editing is always a foreground approach.  To see the files that are stored on the system’s magnetic memory the operator requests a screen directory.

Page Description Language

A page description language consists of three parts: the interpreter, which converts the driver data from the front end into the coding of the printout device; the raster image processor (RIP) which organizes font data and creates the page bit map; and the marking engine which actually produces an output image.


Adobe Systems introduced Postscript as a language developed for producing typographic pages.

Hard Copy Considerations

Line and Edge definition refers to the sharpness and clarity of character and graphic outlines.  Sometimes called an edge gradient.  Dimensional accuracy is affected by the tracking (movement) of the imaging material, the imaging system and the printer resolution.  Area filling is necessary for bars, pies, shading between lines and for character fill.  Color gamut and fidelity refers to the range of colors attainable by a printer.  Image resolution is defined as the number of “discernible line pairs per inch.”  Speed or copy time issues are how long it takes to get the first and subsequent copies of the same page.Offload speed-the computer tied up during the entire printing process?  What’s your processing speed or how fast is raster image processing?


Printer Resolution is the measurement of printer quality is known as resolution.  It is expressed as spots per inch (spi) or dots per inch (dpi).  DPI is more common, but it conflicts with the term dot as used in halftone dot, which is entirely different.  The Print speed is the most often advertised attribute and it tells how fast the device can produce output after processing is complete.  Cost per copy-price per page, is variable and should include the cost of all consumables.  Duty Cycle-number of copies that can be produced in a given time without adversely affecting the device or the copy quality.

  1. Output Printers-they have three basic functions: 1) final copy for reproduction–the output will be used to produce a plate for printing 2)Proofing-the output will be used for review and approval 3)Demand printing-the output will be used as the final end product for users.
  2. Dot matrix printers-companions to personal computers.
  3. Thermal-wax transfers printers-offer 300 spi printing with either three or four pass inked ribbon transfer rolls.
  4. Thermal dye sublimation transfers printers-require precise control of the thermal head temperature by the electronic circuits.
  5. Thermal dye diffusion transfer (D2T2) printers-use a thermal printhead and ribbon similar to thermal-wax transfer printers.
  6. Ink-jet printers-produce images by using liquid inks (mostly water-based) which are ejected from a printhead either by a pumping action by a piezo electric crystal (drop on demand), or by vapor pressure from a vaporized droplet of ink (thermal ink-jet or bubble-jet
  7. Laser printers-that produce black-and-white images on plain paper have replaced or picked up much of the text workload from line printers and daisy wheel printers and the graphics from pen plotters, dot matrix printers and some photo-plotting film recorders.  Typesetter versus imagesetter-imagesetter can output graphics and pictures in addition to type.  Drum-based imagesetters-prefferred for color reproduction because they produce more accuracy and repeatability of images for each of the four films than would be output from an imagesetter.
  8. Platesetters
  9. Press
  10. Electronic printers

Graphic Formats

Graphic data is stored in a variety of ways of storing images, called formats, for integration in other application programs.  Three of the most common are:

1) Tagged Image File Format (Tiff): the most flexible and reliable method for storing bit-mapped images in various resolutions, gray levels and colors.  It cannot store object-oriented images.  TIFF was created specifically for storing gray scale data, and is a standard format for scanned photographs.  Although TIFF is considered a standard graphics format, some programs save TIFF images with subtle variations, which may prevent the files from being handled by other application programs.

2) Encapsulated PostScript (EPS): popular format for storing vector or object-oriented artwork.  It can also store bit maps.  An EPS file in ASC11 format usually contains two versions of the graphic.  The main image is a resolution-independent PostScript description for printing on a PostScript device.  The second, optional image is a low-resolution, bit-mapped preview that can be displayed on-screen.  This double-image scheme enables page-layout programs to import, crop and scale high-quality EPS graphics while using the screen version for the user.  EPS files can be resized, distorted or cropped and most programs that perform color separations accept and color separate them.  At present, they cannot be re-edited.

3)Pure PostScript File: A purely text-based description of an image, without the displayable screen image that EPS offers.  In many applications, you can create a PostScript file and then open the file with any word processor and modify typographic and positioning information (if you know Postscript coding).  You do not need the originating program t print the file.  The PostScript file can be sent to a PostScript printer with a download utility.  There is no preview image, and the graphic essentially loses all editability.  Scanners consist of Desktop scanner and high-end scanners.

Color Publishing Systems are the integration of one or more workstations, linked on a network with data storage, scanner and print out alternatives (with appropriate applications software) results in a system that can be used to create and/or produce color images for printing or presentation.  Called CEPS.

The 5 levels include Designer/Creative Level Systems, Desktop Prepress Level Systems, Mid-Level Production Systems,

Workstations and Prepress Application Software

Marketing a small design firm

Analyze your firm’s strengths and weaknesses honestly.  Set realistic marketing goals based on your firm’s financial means.  Design your program around your needs and interests.  Record your goals and marketing plan.  Identify your markets through careful research.  Involve as many of your staff in promotion of the offices as possible.  Follow up on every letter, brochure, or portfolio that you can send out. Use interviews to ask questions, not to give a speech.  Good cost accounting helps you set fees in a convincing way.  Keep your promotional materials as flexible and inexpensive as possible.  Make sure you distribute your promotional materials widely.  Research, analysis, and synthesis is the three-step approach to solving design problems.

Marketing: A step-by-step program to find and develop possible commissions based on self-chosen, long-term goals and self-analysis of your firm’s capabilities.  It consists of promoting and selling, both pursued as consistent, focused efforts at contacting prospects that are limited only by your firm’s financial means and the time available.

Promotion: Vigorous outreach to sources of work identified through market research and referral.  It is designed to pre-sell prospects with printed materials conveying an appropriate image of your firm and with telephone and personal contacts that emphasize your professional competence and your interest in solving that particular organization’s set of design problems.

Selling: The process of convincing individuals that your firm is the one that will most thoroughly fulfill his or her needs and desires for a specific project.  It requires listening to the client and restating his or her wishes in terms of you potential.  Finally, it involves striking a balance between service and price that satisfies everyone.

Questions to ask before setting up a marketing program:

  • How do your design goals affect your business goals?
  • What matters most to you as you go about your work?
  • What are your feelings about going after new clients?
  • Why are you running this business away?

Small Design firms have to asses Finances.  Accounting methods to keep track of the the firm’s income and expenses have to be addressed.  Is the office stable (size of staff, gross income, amount of work, and so on) over the past few years.  Wha’ts your marketing budget each year?

Analyze your Service Capabilities.  Become known for high-quality client service?  Or are unhappy clients a constant, nagging problem?  Narrow down the strongest services that you offer clients and stick to those (programming, in design/conceptual skills/in production capabilities, or technical development)?  In order to create a “full-service” practice you must include feasibility studies, design and documentation, and project management.  Clearly defined professional services can help distinguish you from the competition

Professional Services

Meeting the client’s functional space and facilities requirements.  Designing with excellence and innovation.  Assigning staff with applicable experience, while adhering to budgets and schedules.  Full and careful coordinating with the client’s in-house staff.  Coordinating consultation services as required.  Working for highly competitive fees. Establishing a personal commitment to each client.


Are you considered an expert in any area of design or practice?  What is your firm’s history or project specialization (example by example)?  Could you office associate with others to offer a joint specialty with a variety of expertise (such as engineering/architecture joint venture in sophisticated medical facilities)?

Personnel Strengths

Do you have turnover problems, or is your staff stable, loyal, and enthusiastic?  Do you have individuals on your staff that could carry out your marketing support functions?  What are the individual qualities of your staff that could contribute to your marketing efforts?  What areas of expertise should be strengthened, or should personnel be brought in fresh to open new marketing possibilities?

Project Management 

Document the timetable and cost of your past jobs.  Understand the patterns of inaccuracy or irresponsibility that can be identified from your records?  Have a strong record on budget and schedule control, do you emphasize it to prospective clients?

–What are the business sectors in your area that need your services and what are the specific growth possibilities there that relate to your practice?  What potential economic developments can you capitalize upon?  How do population/age statistics influence future demand for your expertise?

Marketing Design

Diversity: Identify one or more new markets and sources of work in them; aim for a stated percentage of total income from them.  Have a fresh approach.  Base your presentation on examples of proven experience and skill in making money for your clients.

Client Selectivity: Increase marketing efforts so that there is enough work in the office to allow a stated percentage of expected referral work to be refused; and approach a stated number of identified premium prospects and make every effort to win commissions. Raise the quality of jobs offered to you firm though a well-focused program of promotion and selling.  Have at all times enough work in process so that you can afford to say no to any job you don’t want and have a well-developed selling techniques that enable you to go after and win the commissions you do want.  Evaluate projects based on how they match agency philosophy and basic strengths including personal compatibility with the client.  Also look for a profit.

Stability: Keeping employees and growth.  Make up through marketing the difference between estimated income and targeted annual budget (not including projected profits)

Larger Market Share: Seek to raise percentage of fees you firm gets from those estimated to be available from specific prospects in the geographic marketing area.

Higher Fees: Through publicity and other promotion efforts, raise the public image of your firm to justify asking for higher fees.

Adequate Return: Develop marketing efforts that will increase total annual income to include a stated percentage for profit.


Present your firm’s work and design potential with the use of visual media (portfolios, slides, video, film, etc).  What is your sequence of mailings sent to potential clients?Figure out the ideas/concepts/techniques work best to win you jobs.  A marketing plan is the heart of any attempt at focused promoting and selling of design services.  It also helps you to show natural patterns in the firm’s business that can be used to predict growth and profits.

Marketing Identification Criteria

  • Markets and their size?
  • What share of each market will we have?
  • What is each market’s potential for growth?
  • How can we best satisfy each market and what is our  “edge” in these markets?
  • How should we price our architectural (design) services to be profitable while remaining competitive?

Basic Marketing Issues

Determine the businesses you want more by what you have to offer in these markets.  What is the program going to cost?  The Society for Marketing Professional Services (SMPS) and Professional Services Management Journal.  Discuss Today’s economy and what it means to us in relation to markets and a marketing approach to each.  Have an overall marketing plan and implementation.

Leads and follow-up–>Feasibility studies–>New contacts–>Brochure and advertisements

*Have target dates and tasks (months out).  Have a proposed annual budget

Construct a 3-year cash flow projection based on both optimistic and pessimistic workload scenarios with help from an accountant.  Determine the amount or percentage of profit the firm should aim for over the next five years.  Design firms should spend 7-10% of annual income on marketing.  Person of marketing at a design agency must be promoting, selling, organizing, planning, scheduling, and constantly reassessing goals and strategies.

Criteria for analyzing prospects

  • Does the job conform to your marketing plan
  • How far is the jobsite from your office
  • Do you have other work in progress nearby
  • Are there other possibilities with the same client or in the same area
  • How does the project relate to other things you’ve done
  • Does it pose any unusual site or design problems
  • Is the budget and time schedule adequate to a good design job
  • Can you make a profit on the fee proposed for this project
  • Iist the scope of the job appropriate to your present staff
  • If it’s too big, can you find good people fast enough to get it done on time?
  • Is the client organization responsive to your ideas
  • Will you have to educate them to sell your design concepts
  • Do you feel comfortable with the prospect

General Information about future project developments that is shared by the network of members such as the Society of Publication Designers and the American Institute for Graphic Arts (AIGA).  Specific information from colleagues, for example, on prospective client’s organization on cooperativeness and promptness in paying bills.  Referrals within the society of smaller or more specialized jobs from big offices to appropriate colleagues.  Exposure through show houses, design awards programs, and public service projects such as community design centers, donated ideas for refurbishing Main Street, or a public park.

Direct Mailing

Send brochure with letter introducing the firm to a specific lead gotten from a referral or a printed source.  Follow up with a telephone call to be sure that the designated project director has received the brochure; use the call to build interest in the firm, learn more about the project, and ask for an interview.  Use the professional network to find out who else may be competing for the job.  Continue to telephone as appropriate.  Send along new information (publication tearsheets, reports on new projects begun that might interest this specific client).  Keep up the contact until told: the project has cancelled, assigned to another firm, or the client is totally uninterested.

Mobile graphics organization–>Chairman of the board, corporate design and graphics manager, design consultants, graphic design advisory group, staff coordinators, field coordinators.  The cost-effective alternative to brochures is a portfolio–a handsomely produced cover or “kit” that encloses a packet of staff and project description sheets, reprints, and client lists.

It All Begins with a Great Beginning

For years, both advertisers and agencies talked about selling ideas. What they usually meant by this were slogans, which, more often than not, were based upon, distinct product attributes. Rosser Reeves of Ted Bates was probably the most articulate proponent of this philosophy of advertising. In essence, Reeves told advertisers to find a point of difference in the product, turn this into what he called a “unique selling proposition” or “USP,”

Today that seems old-fashioned. Compare selling proposition with a new concept, the “buying idea.” The concept of buying ideas shifts the emphasis from the point of view of the advertiser to that of the consumer—from what you are selling to what they are buying.  To accomplish the transition from unique selling idea to unique buying idea, agencies have placed more and more emphasis on a process called account planning. Planners are the buyers’ advocates in the agency, and spend their time helping creatives create advertising from the viewpoint of the buyer, not the seller.  Use the “Who, What, What” process to create better, more buyer-relevant advertising.

  • Who — Who do you want your advertising to reach?
  • What — What does he/she think and feel about your product?
  • What — What do you want your audience to think and feel about your product after seeing your advertising?


What does the client want to achieve?

Will it include?

Layout            TV spots         Thumbnail    Outdoor         Total campaign

Radio              e-Marketing  Rough             Ad series        Comp             

Single ad       POP                Direct mail    Literature      Interactive     Web design

The creative process needs to be managed and developed by Account Service and agreed upon by the Client to achieve communication objectives.  Final design should be based upon Research and open to suggestions/discussions.


The __________________(Product/Service) for ___________________ (the target

audience defined in terms of benefits sought) ____________________ (Brand) is the

________________________________________ (Competitive

set/category) which has what _____________differentiating benefit or U.S.P.).


(Who are we talking to and what do they know or believe now? What are their demographics, psychographics, lifestyles, perceptions, beliefs, level of decision-making?)



• Primary, heavy-users, etc.


• Secondary



What action is desired? What do we want them to do?




In one sentence, identify the most important benefit we need to communicate to the prospective consumer about our product/service.  What should our message be?  What are the features the customer would choose our product/service over the competition.




Why they should believe our attributes and us?




(Tone/Manner/Style): Defining the product or service in terms of adjectives associated with the brand.




Who are the principal competitors; what are their strengths and weaknesses?  A brief, concise statement regarding the arena in which the product competes. Include competitors’ tag lines, slogans, product names, ad samples, etc.

What are the mandatories and budget limitations? Ideas from the client or account service?


How will we determine if our communication was successful, i.e., made the consumer take the desired action? How will effectiveness be measured?


Due Dates:

Factors to consider: Design philosophy, practice finances, services, specialization, personnel, project management, practice location, local/regional economy, and national economy.

As a marketing tool, newsletters can be a useful way of keeping clients and prospects abreast of what you are doing.  A consistent pattern of mailing dates is what distinguishes newsletters from other forms of periodic communication.

Design Award Programs

Cost-effective way to stay in the public eye (entry fees are cheap), to gain peer recognition, and to help the grim name become familiar.  Implies success and builds credibility for new clients.  Free publicity arranged for the sponsoring group or association.

Brand identity

Brands have three primary functions: navigation, reassurance, and engagement, or distinctive imagery, language and associations to encourage customers to identify with the brand.Is tangible and appeals to the senses.  You can see it, touch it, hold it, hear it, watch it move.  It fuels recognition, amplifies differentiation, and makes big ideas and meaning accessible.  Brand identity implies an asset.  Corporate identity sounds too much like an expense.  This is an important distinction.


A disciplined process used to build awareness and extend customer loyalty.  Branding is about seizing every opportunity to express why people should choose one brand over another.  A desire to lead, outpace the competition, and give employees the best tools to reach customers are the reasons why companies leverage branding.

Types of Branding:

  • Co-branding: partnering with another brand to achieve reach
  • Digital branding: web, social media, and search engine optimization, driving commerce on the web
  • Personal branding: the way an individual builds their reputation
  • Cause branding: aligning your brand with a charitable cause; or corporate social responsibility
  • Country branding: Efforts to attract tourists and business

The branding process is completed by conducting research, clarifying strategy, designing identity, creating touchpoints, and managing assets.  There are many reasons to invest in brand identity.  It makes it easier for the customer to buy, the sales force to sell, and build brand equity.  A strong brand identity will help build brand equity through increased recognition, awareness, and customer loyalty, which in turn helps make a company more successful.  When you affect behavior, you can impact performance.


Brand strategy builds on a vision aligned with business strategy of a company’s values and culture.  Brand strategy reflects an in-depth understanding of the customer’s needs and perceptions.  Brand strategy defines positioning, differentiation, competitive advantage, and a unique value proposition.

Positioning is defined as the scaffolding on which companies build their brands, strategize their planning, and extend their relationships with customers.  It takes into account price, product, promotion, and place.  Concept that continues to be a fundamental precept in all-marketing communications, branding, and advertising.

The onliness statement: What: The only (category), How: that (differentiation characteristic), Who: for (customer), Where: who (need state), When: during (underlying trend)

Big Idea Process:

  • Understanding: Vision, values, mission, value proposition, culture, target market, segments, stakeholder perceptions, services, products, infrastructure, marketing strategy, competition, trends, pricing, distribution, research, environment, economics, sociopolitics, strengths/weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  • Clarifying: Core values, brand attributes, competitive advantage, and brand strategy
  • Positioning: Differentiation, value proposition, and business category
  • Brand essence: Central idea, unifying concept, key messages, voice and tone

Customer experience: Building loyalty and lifelong relationships at each point of contact.  Name is timeless, tireless, easy to say and remember, it stands for something, and facilitates brand extensions.  Qualities of an effective name: MeaningfulCommunicates something about the essence of the brand.


Unique, easy to remember, pronounce, and spell.  Differentiated from the competition.


Positions company for growth, change, and success.  Has sustainability and preserves possibilities.


Enables a company to build brand extensions with ease.


Can be owned and trademarked.  A domain is available.



It lends itself well to graphic presentation in a logo, in text, and brand architecture.

Customers and investors like names that they can understand.  Things, places, people, animals, processes, mythological names, or foreign words are used in this type of name to allude to a quality of a company.

Brand architecture refers to the hierarchy of brands within a single company.

Taglines influence consumers’ buying behavior by evoking an emotional response.  A short phrase that captures a company’s brand essence, personality, and positioning, and distinguishes the company from its competitors.

Essential characteristic of tagline:

Short, differentiated from its competitors, unique, captures the brand essence and positioning, easy to say and remember, no negative connotations, displayed in small font, can be protected and trademarked, evokes an emotional response, and difficult to create.

Research message mapping

Brand identity ideals

  • Vision-compelling by an effective, articulate, and passionate leaders is the foundation and the inspiration for the best brands.
  • Meaning-The best brands stand for something — a big idea, a strategic position, a defined set of values, and a voice that stands apart.
  • Authenticity-clarity about its market, positioning, value proposition, and competitive difference.
  • Differentiation-competes with brands that want our attention, our loyalty, and our money.
  • Durability-have longevity in a world in constant influx, characterized by future permutations that no one can predict.
  • Coherence-feel familiar and have desired effect of brand experiences
  • Flexibility-Position company for growth and change in the future.  Supports evolving marketing strategy.
  • Commitment-Manage assets, including brand name, the trademarks, the integrated sales and marketing systems, and the standards.
  • Value-Building awareness, increasing recognition, communicating uniqueness and quality, and expressing a competitive difference to create measurable results.


Signature-Structured relationship between a logotype, brandmark, and tagline.

Typology of marks

  • Wordmarks-a freestanding acronym, company name, or product name that has been designed to convey a brand attribute or positioning.  Ex: Google
  • Letterforms-a unique design using one or more letterforms that act as a mnemonic device for a company name. Ex: Univision
  • Emblems-a mark in which the company name is inextricably connected to a pictorial element.  Ex: TiVo
  • Pictorial marks-An immediately recognizable literal image that has been simplified and stylized. Ex: Apple
  • Abstract/symbolic marks-A symbol that conveys a big idea, and often embodies strategic ambiguity.  Ex: Target
  • Characters-central to advertising campaigns and are cultural icons to embody brand attributes and values. Ex: Geico

The sequence of cognition- brain acknowledges and remembers shapes first.  Visual images can be remembered and recognized directly, while words must be decoded into meaning.  Shape–>color–>form

Look and feel is the visual language that makes a system proprietary and immediately recognizable.  Basics:

Design-Intelligence made visible.

Color Palettes-Systems may have a secondary and primary.

Imagery-photography, illustration, or iconography.

Typography-systems incorporate this.

Sensory-material qualities (how something feels in your hand–texture and weight), interactive qualities (how something opens or moves), and auditory and olfactory qualities (how something sounds and smells).

Benefits of brand licensing

Licensors or Brand owners

  • Enhances the brand image
  • Grows the value of the brand
  • Increase awareness of the brand
  • Reinforces brand positioning and brand message
  • Attracts new consumers to the brand
  • Reinforces brand positioning and brand message
  • Attracts new consumers to the brand
  • Builds competitive advantage
  • Builds stronger relationships with customers
  • Gains entry into new distribution channels
  • Lets consumers exhibit their love of the brand
  • Protects the brand via trademark registration and policing of marketplace
  • Provides consumers genuine alternatives for illegal and unauthorized products
  • Generates incremental revenues through: increased sales of core product, royalties from the sale of licensed product

Licensees of Manufacturers

  • Increases market share
  • Opens new retail channels
  • Gains shelf space at retail
  • Increases awareness of their product
  • Attracts new customers to their product
  • Builds competitive advantage
  • Increases sales through a wider assortment of products
  • Lends credibility to their products
  • Generates incremental revenues through the sale of licensed product

Brand roles


  • Set licensing goals and establish objectives
  • Approve annual strategic licensing plan
  • Approve prospective licensees
  • Approve licensed products, packaging, marketing, and collateral materials
  • Provide access to licensable assets and/or develop style guide
  • Register trademarks in appropriate categories
  • Pursue trademark infringers
  • Execute license agreements


  • Set licensing goals and establish objectives
  • Approve annual strategic licensing plan (brand acquisition)
  • Approve prospective licensors
  • Develop, manufacture, and market approved products
  • Monitor marketplace for trademark infringers
  • Deliver quality royalty reports and payments


  • Develop strategic licensing program for presentation and approval
  • Create sales materials to solicit interest from licensees or licensors
  • Prospect qualified licensees or licensors
  • Negotiate terms of license agreement
  • Guide contract management process
  • Lead the acquisition and/or development of licensable assets, or the creation of a style guide
  • Manage product, packaging, and collateral material approval process
  • Administer royalties
  • Police marketplace for trademark infringement
  • Handle daily program needs

The brand identity process demands a combination of investigation, strategic thinking, design excellence, and project management skills.


1. Conducting research

  • Clarify vision, strategies, goals, and values.
  • Research stakeholders’ needs and perceptions.
  • Conduct marketing, competitive technology, legal, and language audits.
  • Evaluate existing brands and brand architecture.
  • Present audit readout.

2. Clarifying strategy

  • Synthesize learnings.
  • Clarify brand strategy.
  • Develop a positioning platform.
  • Co-create brand attributes.
  • Write a brand brief.
  • Achieve agreement.
  • Create a naming strategy.
  • Develop key messages.
  • Write a creative brief.

3. Designing Identity

  • Visualize the future.
  • Brainstorm big idea.
  • Design brand identity.
  • Explore applications.
  • Finalize brand architecture.
  • Present visual strategy.
  • Achieve agreement.

4. Creating touchpoints

  • Finalize identity design.
  • Develop look and feel.
  • Initiate trademark protection.
  • Prioritize and design applications.
  • Design program.
  • Apply brand architecture.

5. Managing assets

  • Build synergy around the new brand.
  • Develop launch strategy and plan.
  • Launch internally first.
  • Launch externally.
  • Develop standards and guidelines.
  • Nurture brand champions.

Metrics for Brand Management:

Insert Chart here!

Corpus Callosum

Left Brain: Logical, Sequential, Rational, Analytical, Objective, Looks at parts

Right Brain: Random, Intuitive, Holistic, Synthesizing, Subjective, Looks at wholes

Collecting data: Market sizing, awareness, attitudes, recognition, reputation, statistics, and demographics

Listening: One-on-one interviews, Focus groups, SWOTs, Visioning

Design: Imagine, Realize, Celebrate, Simplify

Focusing: Goals, Segmentation, Mind Map, and Positioning

Weaving: History and future, competitive analysis, trend analysis, benchmarking, perceptual mapping, audit readout

Dreaming: Visioning, Mood Board

Observing: Customer experience, ethnography, digital ethnography, usability studies, mystery shopping, eye tracking



Reference pg. 114 for entire process


Foundation: Meaning, Voice, Tone, Emphasis, Accuracy, Clarity, Consistency, Positioning, Framework, Hierarchy Punctuation, Capitalization, style

Identification: Company name-formal, company name-informal, descriptors, taglines, product names, process names, service names, division names,

Aspiration: Mission, vision and values, key messages, guiding principles, customer pledges, history, elevator speak, boilerplate

Navigation: Call to action, Phone numbers, URLs, Email signatures, Voicemail messages, titles, addresses, diagrams, forms, directions

Information: News releases, FAQ’s, Press kits, Annual reports, brochures, Shareholder communications, call center scripts, customer service scripts, presentations, announcements, web content, blog content, blast emails, advertising campaigns, direct mail

Process of synthesizing learning:

Interviews: Stakeholder categories, key learnings, customer insights, excerpts

Brand: Strategy, presence, essence

Marketing Research: Brand Recognition, Survey Results, Focus group findings, Perceptual mapping, SWOTs, Gap Analysis, Benchmarking

Marketing Audit: Logos and signatures, Brand Architecture, Across marketing channels, media, product lines, look and feel, imagery, color, typography

Language Audit: Voice and tone, clarity, naming, taglines, key messages, navigation, hierarchy, descriptors

Competitive Audit: Positioning, Logos, Brand Architecture, Taglines, Key messages, Look and Feel, Imagery, Color, Typography

Intellectual property audit: Trademarks, compliance issues

Process audit: Existing guidelines, technology, and collaboration

Brand Brief–>Creative Brief

Brand Brief: Vision, Mission, Big Idea or brand essence, brand attributes, value proposition, guiding principles/key beliefs, target audience, key markets, key competitors, competitive advantage, stakeholders, driving force

Process of Naming:

Revisit positioning: Examine brand goals and target market needs, evaluate existing names, examine competitor names

Get organized: Develop timeline and team, identify brainstorming techniques, determine search mechanism, develop decision-making process, and organize reference resources

Create naming criteria: Performance criteria, positioning criteria, legal criteria, and regulatory criteria

Brainstorm solutions: Create numerous names, organize in categories and themes, look at hybrids and mimetics, be prolific, and explore variations/iterations on a theme

Conduct initial screening: Positioning, linguistic, legal, common-law databases, online search engines, online phone directories, and domain registration, creating a short list

Conduct contextual testing: Say the name, leave a voicemail, email the name, and put it no a business card, put in an ad headline, put it into the voice of stakeholders

Testing: Determine methods to trust, check for red flags, unearth trademark conflicts, check language connotations, check cultural connotations, do linguistic analysis

Final legal screen: Domestic, International, Domain, Regulatory, and Registration

Color is used to evoke emotion and express personality.  It stimulates brand association and accelerates differentiation.

Research basic color theory knowledge: Warm, cool, values, hues, tints, shades, complementary colors, contrasting colors.


Trademark process

Circle R denotes a registered trademark, and may only be used when marks have been federally registered

™ is used to alert the public and does not require filling federal applications.  It means trademark, which is a claim of ownership for goods and packaging.

SM means service mark and refers to a unique service.  This appears on any form of advertising and promotional literature.  It does not require filing federal registration.

pg. 146 letterhead

Research the size for a foreign country


–Telephone: Phone, Tel, P, T, Voice, and V

–Facsimile: Fax, F

–Mobile: Cellular, Cell, M, C

–Email: email, e, (just address)

–Website: Web, (Just url)

pg. 148 business card process

Process of collateral design

Revisit the big picture: Examine positioning goals, competitive audit and internal auide, identify functional needs for how brochures are used and distributed, understand how collateral is produced within the company, identify challenges

Design a cover system: Design grid for signature, content, and visuals.  Examine signature scenarios: Signature in primary and constant place, split signature, signature not used on cover, signature used on black only, signature used in secondary position with product name in primary position.

Determine typographic system: One typeface family or two, title typeface, cover descriptor typeface, header typeface, and subhead typeface, caption typeface.

Determine artwork: Photography, illustration, design elements, collage, typographic, abstract, identify derivative,.

Design color family: Define set of approved colors.  Evaluate production methods to align color across media.

Choose standard formats: U.S. sizes, International sizes, consider postage, consider electronic delivery

Specify paper: Examine functionality, opacity, and feel.  Examine price points, decide on family of papers, have dummies made, feel the paper, consider weight, consider recycled.

Develop prototypes: Use real copy, edit language as needed, demonstrate flexibility and consistency of system, decide on signature configurations.

Develop guidelines: Articulate goals and value of consistency, create grids and templates, explain system with real examples, and monitor execution.

Favicons-miniaturized storefront signs that give brands an opportunity to attract attention and stand out from the crowd.

Signage Design Process:

Establish goals: Determine project scope, understand audience needs and habits, clarify positioning, clarify function, and develop time frame and budget.

Build Project team: Client facilities manager, information design firm, fabricator, architect or space designer, lighting consultant

Conduct research: Site audit: environment, site audit: building type, user habits and patterns, local codes and zoning, consideration for the disabled, weather and traffic conditions, materials and finishes, fabrication processes

Establish project criteria: Legibility, placement, visibility, sustainability, safety, maintenance, security, modularity

Begin design schematic: Brand identity system, color, scale, format, typography, lighting, materials and finishes, fabrication techniques, mounting and hardware, placement

Develop design: Begin variance process, prepare prototypes or models, finalize content, create drawings or renderings, choose materials and color samples

Complete documentation: Complete working drawings, construction, mounting, and elevation details, final specifications, placement plans, bid documents, and permit applications

Manage fabrication: Check shop drawings, inspect work, manage fabrication, manage installation, develop maintenance plan.


Generative Research: Clarity product brand strategy, conduct competitive analysis, absorb client and secondary research, indentify information gaps, research new insights, analyze ergonomic and usability issues, survey market trends, search for any IP landmines, perform tech feasibility study.

Product Definition/planning: Assemble cross-functional development team.  Develop user profiles, define key features and differentiators, clarify brand position, refine formal product spec, build consensus with team

Ideation: Conduct multitier brainstorming, explore configuration options, explore 2D and 3D concepts, build models to prove concepts, refine concepts for team review, narrow range of concepts and refine, create testing presentation materials

Evaluate research: Develop research methodology, recruit partnerships, conduct customer concept testing, analyze data, and develop recommendations for refinement

Concept refinement: Synthesize customer feedback, refine the product specification, flesh out aesthetic and feature details, create user interaction logic, engineer component resolution, detail form and touch points, refine product inform and graphic system, review 2D and 3D touchpoints

Engineering development: Develop breadboards, create manufacturing strategy, build detailed parts list, develop assembly design tasks, analyze high-risk features and interfaces, engineer or sustainability and cost optimization, render mechanical and electrical UI design in CAD, Fabricate prototypes, conduct performance testing and customer validation

Evaluate research: Validate product design: Examine customer experience, devalues aesthetics usability functionality, perform engineering analysis, ensure standards compliance, review production strategy with manufacturers, analyze results of testing, create list of final changes

Product implementation: Finalize production estimates, complete mass production details, fabricate final prototypes, codify design improvements, perform engineering tolerance study, finalize engineering documentation for tooling and production, finalize tooling and production plan

Production support: Coordinate tooling fabrication, do formal review of first production parts, achieve final approval, provide final production changes, assist with final compliance testing


Consider the entire lifecycle of the package and its relationship to the product: source, print, assemble, pack, preserve, ship, display, purchase, use, recycle/dispose.


Conduct Research: Define objectives and target audiences, review or develop brand vision and positioning, review past creative and results, analyze marketplace, review competition and trends, develop target archetypes, identify opportunities and unmet needs, review analysis and key insights

Develop Strategy: Define strategic objective and customer benefits, with evolutionary vs. revolutionary approaches, define brand personality, revitalize positioning, validate priorities and assumptions, explore creative strategies, develop media strategy

Develop Creative: Develop strategic design brief, define creative strategy, develop integrate theme, develop copy concepts, develop visual approaches, distill the best ideas, explore integration across media, establish marketing budget

Test creative: Determine testing approach, conduct consumer communication verification checks, modify concepts as necessary, develop production schedule

Test media plan: Develop alternative strategies, determine reach frequency benefits budgets, review and finalize plan and budget, place media buy, provide content to media, review media verification and invoices

Manage production: Assemble production specifications and requirements, develop production schedule, review with client or test with consumer, clear with legal, review modify and edit as necessary

Implement campaign: Communicate plant to client team, conduct road show for client field outposts, launch integratted campaign conduct consumer communication checks, capture key learnings, document improvement opportunities, manage ongoing program

Monitor impact: Track impact across all media, compare sales activity to that of prior campaigns, review costs relative to budge, assemble findings for discussion, and modify campaign for future.

RETAIL KNOWLEDGE: Basket Rings are the size of the grocery order and it is good to grow the size…  used in article as ….Especially noteworthy was that shoppers’ total basket rings were larger when prepared seafood items were a part of them.  And I think meat is usually an item that they say makes the basket worth more.

CREATE NEW BRAND GUIDELINES and Standards: Foreword, Message from CEO, Our Mission and Values, Our Brand, What we stand for, The role of brand identity, and how to use the guidelines.

Brand Identity Elements: Brandmark, Logotype, Signature, Tagline, Name in text, and incorrect usage of elements.

Nomenclature: Communicative vs. legal names, Corporate, Division, Business Unit, and product and service trademarks.

Color: Brand color system, Default color system, Supporting color system, Signature color options, and incorrect use of color.


Corporate signature

Signature variations

Incorrect signature variations

Subsidiary signatures

Product signature

Signature with tagline

Incorrect signature usage

Subsidiary signatures

Product signature

Signature with tagline

Incorrect tagline treatment

Clear space around signature

Signature sizes


Typeface family

Supporting typefaces

Special display faces

Typefaces for word processing

U.S. Business Papers

Corporate letterhead

Typing template

Division letterhead

Personalized letterhead

Second Sheet

#10 envelope

Monarch letterhead

Monarch envelope

Memo template

Business cards for corporate

Business cards for sales force

Fax electronic template


News Releases

Mailing labels

Window envelope

Large mailing envelope



CD Labels

International business papers

A-4 letterhead

A-4 personalized letterhead

A-4 business envelope

Business cards

Digital Media






Style guides








Form elements

Vertical and Horizontal

Form grid

Purchase order



Marketing materials

Voice and tone


Signature placement



Recommended grids

Brochure system, size variations


Product sheets

Direct mail





Advertising signatures

Tagline usage

Signature placement on ads


Television advertising grid

Presentations and proposals

Vertical covers

Horizontal covers

Covers with windows

Interior grid

PowerPoint templates

PowerPoint imagery


Trade show booth


Point of purchases



External signage

Internal signage



Materials and finishes

Lighting considerations

Fabrication guidelines

Company flag

Vehicle Identification













Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall, Rain gear


See earlier

Image Library



Reproduction files

Brandmark only

Signature variations








Whom to contact with questions

Frequently asked questions

Design inquiries

Clearance process

Legal information

Ordering information

In pocket

Color swatches on coated stock

Color swatches on uncoated stock

Finding your way around Reproduction files

  • What type of image is it?  Is it a photographic image with continuous tones or is it a graphic design image with solid color, crisp edges, and line art.
  • How is it going to be reproduced? Professional printing, office printing, and screen display have different file requirements.  Some documents may be viewed on screen or printed out.
  • What color space is it needed?  Color information is included in a file and interpret by the output device.  Professional printing techniques use spot color inks (such as Pantone) of four-color process inks, which builds color out of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK).  Color inkjet or laser printers use CMYK toner.
  • Screens display color with red, blue, and green points of light (RGB).  Hex numbers designate RGB colors for HTML code.
  • What program is being used?  It is important to know the program being used to ensure compatibility and to facilitate use of vector artwork whenever possible.
  • I can’t open it!  Unless you are going to modify the artwork in a design program, image files should be inserted or placed, not opened.
  • I can’t find it! Files should be named as concisely and informatively as possible so they can be understood at a glance.  Consistency is imperative for grouping common attributes and distinguishing unique ones.

File format basics:

  • Vector graphics: hard-edged images created in a drawing program.  Because they are based on mathematically defined lines and curves, they can be manipulated and scaled without losing reproduction quality.
  • EPS: Encapsulate PostScript, Vector graphics created in a drawing program are saved or exported as EPS files so that they can be placed into other applications.  The highest-quality output for graphic images with hard edges.  Printers must have Adobe PostScript.  When vector graphics are saved as TIF, JPG, or other bitmap file format, the hard-edged lines and curves are converted to pixels.  EPS files created in Adobe Photoshop are bitmap images and will lose clarity when scale or printed.
  • Raster or bitmap: Read or bitmap images are continuous-tone images that are constructed mapping of pixels.  These images cannot be scaled, rotated, or skewed outside of an image-editing application without the loss of reproduction quality.
  • Tif, Tag Image File Format: Highest-quality output for photographic images.  Best bitmaps version of hard-edged graphics–alternative to EPS when an Adobe PostScript printer is unavailable.  Convenient for exchanging image files between computer platforms.
  • JPG, Joint Photographic Experts Group-Compressed file format for on-screen viewing of continuous-tone photographs.  Compression adds “artifacts” and smears text, lines, and edges.  Not suitable for printing.
  • GIF, Graphics Interchange Format: Compressed file format for on-screen viewing of graphics and images in HTML.  Not suitable for printing.
  • PNG: Portable Network Graphic


The resolution of digital imagery is measured in pixels per inch (ppi), the digital equivalent of dots per inch (dpi).  The end use of the image is critical for determining the optimum resolution.  For printing, the higher the resolution the more detail and clarity there is to the image, and the larger the file is in terms of memory.  Offset printing typically requires 300-ppi resolution.  For screen display, the pixels in the image map directly to the pixels on the screen.  Images for screen display should be 72 ppi (Mac) or 96 ppi (PC), but the physical dimensions will be affected by the resolution of the display itself.

File naming conventions

File names should have no more than fifteen characteristics plus a three-letter file extension (.eps, .jpg, .gif, .doc) indicating what type of file it is.  Do not use uppercase, spaces, or special characters, such as “/ : * <>.  Use a period only before the file extension suffix.  Create a system for organizing and identifying those variations of the artwork that are required for different applications, such as signature, color, subrand entity, and file format.

Award Ideas:

Beverage Packaging Global Design Awards

International Brand Packaging Awards

Packaging Design Council International

Paperboard Packaging Council

Color Symbolism by Culture:


  • China: Good luck, celebration, summoning
  • India: Purity
  • Mexico: Religion
  • Egypt: Luck
  • Iran: Good Fortune
  • South Africa: Color of mourning
  • Eastern: Worn by brides
  • Western: Excitement, danger, love, passion, stop, Christmas (with green)


  • China: Nourishing, royalty
  • Egypt: Mourning
  • India: Merchants, commerce
  • Japan: Courage
  • Eastern: Proof against evil, for the dead, sacred, imperial
  • Western: Hope, hazards, coward, weakness, taxis
  • Mexico: Mourning
  • Ethiopia: Mourning
  • South Africa: Wealth
  • Saudi Arabia: Strength, reliability

Design tips:

Richer colors and more vibrant imagery on redesigned labels enhance taste appeal and product quality.  A die-cut shape adds depth and draws attention to banners.  A die-cut shape adds depth and draws attention to banners.  Yellow acts as a violator to emphasize the flavor variety.

COLOR: QR Codes are most commonly displayed as a black code on white because it provides the greatest contrast.  This is a best practice because it has the best scan reliability.  A reversed QR Code is not advised as many QR code readers cannot read the code and not all barcode readers will support this without the contrast.  So try to stick with black to reach the largest audience for marketing campaigns.

SIZE: For most smart phones, the relationship between scan distance and minimum QR code size is approximately 10:1 so a 2.5cm (1 inch).  Small, complex QR codes are the biggest mistake currently being made by marketers.  Smartphone cameras with resolution less than 4-megapixels can’t scan a QR code smaller than about 1″x1.”  Moreover, without the auto-focus (AF) camera feature, a complex QR code will have the same scanning issue, even if the code is larger. The iPhone 3GS and Blackberry are popular handset examples that lack both of these camera features. Unscannable codes kill and delay the adoption rate for 2D barcode campaigns.  As small as ¾ inch is smallest recommended for best practices.  Also, the more complex the code, the larger it should be.

Sources: About-QR-Codes

Bilingual Packaging


Clair goals and positioning

Establish goals and define the problem  Brand Equity and Competition.  Existing brands in product line.  Price point and target consumer.  Product benefit.

Conduct Audits and Identify Expert team

Competitive (category), Retail (point of sale), Brand (internal, existing product line) Packaging designer, packaging engineer, packaging engineer, packaging manufacturers, industrial designers, regulatory legal department

Conduct research as needed

Understand brand equity, determine brand standards, examine brand architecture, clarify target consumer, confirm need for product–does product benefit resonate?  Confirm language–how should benefit be expressed?

Research legal requirements

Brand and corporate standards: product-specific, net weight, drug facts, nutrition facts, ingredients, warnings, and claims.

Research functional criteria

Product stability, tamper of theft resistance, shelf footprint, durability, usage, packability, fillability

Determine printing specs

Method: flexo, litho, root; Application: direct, label, shrink-wrap label; Other: number of colors, divinyl, UPC code, minimums for knockouts, etc.

Determine structural design

Design new structure or use stock?, Choose forms (i.e., carton, bottle, can, tube, jar, tin, blister packs), Choose possible materials, substrates, or finishes, source stock and get samples

Finalize Copy

Product name, benefit copy, ingredients, nutrition facts/drug facts, net contents, claims, warnings, distributed by, manufactured in, UPC Code

Design and prototype

Start with face panels (2D renderings), get prototypes made, narrow option(s), design rest of packaging, simulate reality: use actual structure/substrate with contents

Evaluate solution and manage production

In a retail/competitive environment, As a member of the product line, consumer testing finalize files, oversee production

Books to read:

The elements of Content Strategy by Erin Kissane

SEO and Content Strategy for Designers by Mark O’Brien

The Web Designer’s Content Strategy DesignCast series by Mark O’Brien

A Website that Works by Mark O’Brien

A Guide to Business Principles and Practices for Interior Designers by Harry Siegel

Financial Management for Design professionals by Lowell Getz

A good source of information about using language skills in the design field is Creative Communications for a Successful Design Practice by Stephen A. Kliment.

Also read The Art of Plain Talk by Rudolph Flesch

Dale Carnegie course

Graphic Arts Term Guide For Marketers

2 thoughts on “DESIGN

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