Buyer Behavior in Consumer Markets
Goal of Marketing Strategy: to identify specific customer needs, then design a marketing program that can satisfy those needs. The behavior of consumers is often irrational and unpredictable. Ethnography-developing information about families to develop products/services that better fit family lifestyles. Successful marketing strategy depends on a clear understanding of customers who they are, what they need, what they prefer, and why they buy.
The Consumer Buying Process
- Need Recognition
- Consumer needs and wants are not the same
- An understanding of consumer wants is essential for market segmentation and the development of the marketing program
- Marketers must create the appropriate stimuli to foster need recognition
- Information Search
- Consumers trust internal/personal sources of information more than external sources.
- The amount of time, effort, and expense dedicated to the search for information depends on (1) the degree of risk involved in the purchase, (2) the amount of the experience the consumer has with the product category, and (3) the actual cost of the search in terms of time and money
- Consumers narrow their potential choices to an evoked set of suitable alternatives that may meet their needs
- Evaluation of Alternatives
- Consumers translate their needs in to wants for specific products or brands
- Consumers evaluate products as bundles of attributes that have varying abilities to satisfy their needs
- Marketers must ensure that their product is in the evoked set of potential alternatives
- Marketers must take steps to understand consumers’ choice criteria and the importance they place on specific product attributes
- Purchase Decisions
- A consumer’s purchase intention and the actual act of buying are distinct concepts. Several factors may prevent the actual purchase from taking place.
- Marketers must ensure that their product is available and offer solutions that increase possession utility=
- Postpurchase evaluation
- Postpurchase evaluation is the connection between the buying process and the development of long-term customer relationships
- Marketers must closely follow consumers’ responses (delight, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, cognitive dissonance) to monitor the product’s performance and its ability to meet customers’ expectations
Other stages may include actual consumption behaviors, product uses, and product disposal after consumption. The buying process depicts the possible range of activities that may occur in making purchase decision. Buying process involves a parallel sequence of activities associated with finding the most suitable merchant of the product in question. The choice of a suitable merchant may actually take precedence over the choice of a specific product. Some merchants become so well-know for certain products that customers just naturally execute for certain products that customers just naturally execute their buying process with that merchant
the buying process begins when consumers recognize that they have an unmet need. Occurs when consumers realize that there is a discrepancy between their existing situation and their desired situation (satisfaction of fulfillment). A need occurs when an individuals current level of satisfaction does not equal their desired level of satisfaction. A want is a consumer’s desire for a specific products that will satisfy the need. The firm must always understand the basic needs fulfilled by its products. This idea is to build on the basic need and conceive potential consumers to want your product because it will fulfill their needs better than any competing product. Demand occurs only when the consumer’s ability and willingness to purchase a specific product backs up their want for the product. The marketer must first educate consumers on the need for the product, and then convince consumers to want his products over competing products.
Marketing stimuli can prompt consumers to become interested in a product leading to a desire to seek out additional information. Can be passive or active. Passive information search-consumer becomes more attentive and receptive to information, such as noticing and paying attention to automobile advertisements if the customer has a want for a specific car brand. Active information search-purposely seeks additional information, such as by surfing the Internet, asking friends, or visiting dealer showrooms. Time effort, and expense dedicated to the for information depends on a number of issues:
1. The degree of risk involved in the purchase: Financial risk, social risk, emotional risk, and personal risk
2. Amount of expertise or experience has with the product category.
3. The actual cost of the search in terms of time and money will limit the degree to which
consumers search for information.
Throughout the information search, consumers learn about different products or brands and begin to remove some from further consideration This list of suitable alternatives is called the evoked set, and it represents the outcome of the information search and the beginning of the next stage of the buying process.
Evaluation of Alternatives
The consumers essentially translates their need into a want for a specific product or brand. The evaluation of alternatives is the hardest for marketers to understand, measure, or influence.
Consumers evaluate products as bundles of attributes that have varying abilities to satisfy their needs. Brand Attributes-image, reputation, reliability, product features, esthetics’s attributes(styling, sportiness, roominess, color, and price)
- The marketer’s products must be in the evoked set of potential alternatives.
- Vital that marketers take steps to understand consumers’ choice criteria and the importance they place on specific product attributes.
Marketers can often reduce or eliminate these problems by reducing the risk of purchase through warranties or guarantees, making the purchase stage as easy as possible, or by finding creative solutions to unexpected problems. The key issues for marketers during the purchase stage are product availability and possession utility. The key to availability is convenience. To increase possession utility the marketer may have to offer financing or layaway for large dollar purchases, delivery and installation of products like appliances or furniture, home delivery of convenience items like pizza or newspapers, or the proper packaging and prompt shipment of items through the mail.
- Delight- the product’s performance greatly exceeds the buyer’s expectations
- Satisfaction- the product’s performance matches the buyer’s expectations
- Dissatisfaction-The product’s performance falls short of the buyer’s expectations.
- Cognitive dissonance-(Postpurchase Doubt) The buyer is unsure of the product’s performance relative to his or her expectations
Consumers are more likely to experience dissatisfaction or cognitive dissonance when the dollar value of the purchase increases, the opportunity costs of rejected alternatives are high, or the purchase decision is emotionally involving. Firms manage these responses by offering liberal return policies, providing extensive sales support, or reinforcing the wisdom of the consumers purchase decision. Major influence on the word-of-mouth information.
Factors that Affect the Consumer Buying Process
Variation in the buying process occurs because consumers are different, the products that they buy are different, and the situations in which consumers make purchase decisions are different. Complexity of the purchase and decision, individual influences, social influences, and situational influences.
The complexity of the purchase and decision-making process is the primary reason why the buying process will vary across consumers and with the same consumer in different situations. Purchase characterized by high personal, social, financial risk, strong emotional involvement, and the lack of experience with the product or purchase situation. Marketers of highly complex products must recognize that consumers are quite risk averse and need a great deal of information. Firms that sell less complex products face the challenges of creating a brand image and ensuring that their pare products are easily recognizable. Marketers issue branding, packaging, advertising, and point-of-purchase displays to solve these problems.
Age, life cycle, occupation, and socioeconomic status, are fairly easy to understand and incorporate in the marketing strategy. The individual factors are quite useful for marketers in target market selection, product development, and promotional strategy. Individual factors such as perceptions, motives, interests, attitudes, opinions, or lifestyles, are much harder to understand because they do not clearly coincide with demographic characteristics like age, gender, or income levels. These individual factors are also very difficult to change. Many marketers adapt their products and promotional messages to fit existing attitudes, interest, or lifestyles.
Culture, subculture, social class, reference groups, and family have a profound impact on what, why, and how consumers buy. Reference groups and opinion leaders also have an important impact on consumers’ buying process. Reference groups act as a point of comparison and source of product information. When consumers feel like they lack personal expertise, they seek the advice of of opinion leaders, who they view as being well informed in a particular field of knowledge. Software manufacturers, release beta (test) versions of their products to opinion leaders before a full-scale launch. Starts a word-of mouth.
Hungry consumers who are in a hurry often grab the quickest lunch they can find. Consumers facing emergency situations have little time to reflect on their product choices and whether they will make the right decision. Consumers may also devote less time and effort the the buying process if they are uncomfortable Ex: Sit down restaurants
Physical and spacial influences
Ex: Retail atmospherics, retail crowding, store layout and design
Potential influences on buying behavior: A comfortable atmosphere or ambiance promotes lingering, browsing, and buying. Crowded stores may cause customers to leave or by less than planned.
Social and Interpersonal Influence
Ex: Shopping in groups, Salespeople, Other customers
Potential Influences on Buying Behavior: Consumers are more susceptible to the influences of other consumers when shopping in groups. When rude salespeople can end the buying process. Obnoxious “other” customers may cause the consumer to leave or be dissatisfied.
Ex: Lack of time, emergencies, convenience
Potential Influences on Buying Behavior: Consumers will pay more for products when they are in a hurry or face an emergency. Lack of time greatly reduces the search for information and the evaluation of alternatives. Consumers with ample time can seek information and the evaluation of alternatives. Consumers with ample time can seek information on many different product alternatives.
Purchase task or product usage Influences
Ex: Special occasions, buying for others, buying a gift
Potential Influences on Buying Behavior: Consumers may buy higher quality products for gifts or special occasions. The evoked set will differ when consumers are buying for others as opposed to themselves.
Consumer Dispositional Influences
Ex: Stress, Anxiety, Fear, Fatigue, Emotional Involvement, Good/Bad Mood
Potential Influences on Buying behavior: Consumers suffering from stress or fatigue may not buy at all or they may indulge in certain products to make themselves feel better. Consumers who are in a bad mood are exceptionally difficult to please. An increase in fear or anxiety over a purchase may cause consumers to seek additional information and take great pains to make the right decision.
Product choices also change when consumers make the purchase for someone else, such as buying little or children. 812-322-8955
Buyer Behavior in Business Markets
Business markets and consumer markets:
Both contain buyers and sellers who seek to make good purchases and satisfy their personal or organizational objectives. Include stages associated with need identification, information search, and product evaluation. Consumers buy products for their personal use or consumption. Organizational buyers purchase products for use in their operations.
- Commercial Markets-buy raw materials for use in producing finished goods, and they buy facilitating goods and services used in the production of finished goods.
- Reseller Markets-channel intermediaries such as wholesalers, retailers, or brokers that buy finished goods from the producer market and resell them at a profit, channel intermediaries have the responsibility for creating the variety and assortment of products offered to consumers.
- Government markets-include federal, state, county, city, and local governments. Governments buy a wide range of finished goods. Most government purchases are for the services provided to citizens.
- Institutional markets-consist of a diverse group of noncommercial organizations such as churches, charities, schools, hospitals, or professional organizations. These organizations primarily buy finished goods that facilitate their ongoing operations.
Unique Characteristics of Business Markets
Hard and soft costs. Many business transactions are based on long-term relationships, so trust, reliability, and overall goal attainment are often much more important than the price of the product.
The Buying Center
The group of people responsible for making purchase decisions. In an organization, the buying center tends to be much more complex and difficult to identify. 3 groups: economic buyers, technical buyers, and users-each of which may have its own agenda and unique needs that affect the buying decision.
Economic buyers- those senior managers with the overall responsibility of achieving the buying firms objectives. This made economic buyers a greater target for promotional activities. Technical buyers-employees with the responsibility of buying products to meet needs on an ongoing basis-include purchasing agents and materials.
Users-managers and employees who have the responsibility of using a product purchased by the firm-comprise the last group of people in the buying center.
Hard and Soft Costs
Hard Costs-include monetary price and associate purchase costs such as shipping and installation.
Soft costs-such as downtime, opportunity costs, and human resource costs associated with the compatibility of systems, in the buying decision.
Such arrangements can be upfront condition of purchase in purely transaction-based marketing. Reciprocal buying is less likely to occurs within long-term relationships unless it helps both parties achieve their respective goals.
Consumer-marketer relationships, this level of dependence tends to be low. Not case in business markets where sole-source or limited-source buying may leave an organization’s operations severely distress then a supplier shuts down or cannot deliver. Rubbermaid was able to recover somewhat by lavishing its buying partners with exceptional service.
The Business Buying Process
- Problem Recognition-the recognition of needs can stem form a variety of internal and external sources
- Develop Product Specifications-define business purchases. Typically done by buying center.
- Vendor Identification and Qualification-Business buyers must ensure that potential vendors can deliver on needed product specifications within a specified time frame and in the needed quantities.
- Solicitation of Proposals or Bids-buying firm may request that qualified vendors submit proposals or bids
- Vendor Selection-best vendor not necessarily the one offering the lowest price. Issues such as reputation, timeliness of delivery, guarantees, or personal relationships with the members of the buying center are often more important
- Order processing-processing the order, negotiating credit terms, setting firm delivery dates, and any final technical assistance need to complete the purchase.
- Vendor Performance Review-Product may successfully fulfill the needed specifications, but the vendor’s performance is poor. The result of these evaluations will affect future purchase decisions.
Environmental conditions can have a major influence on buyer behavior by increasing the uncertainty, complexity, and risk associated with a purchase. In situations of rapid environmental change, business buyers may alter their buying plans, postpone purchases, or even cancel purchases until things settle down. Also effect decisions regarding the recruitment and hiring of employees. Organizational factors can also influence business buying decisions. These factors include conditions with the firm internal environment (resources, strategies, policies, objectives), as well of the condition of relationships with business or supply chain partners. A shift in the firms resources can change buying decisions. internal changes in information technology. Interpersonal relationships and individual factors. Power struggles are not uncommon in business, or Individual factors-certain managerial personal preferences or prejudices.
Market Segmentation as the process of dividing the total market for a particular product or product category into relatively homogeneous segments or groups. To be effective, segmentation should create groups where the members within the group have similar likes, tastes, needs, wants, or preferences, but where groups themselves are dissimilar from each other. Many firms today take segmentation to the extreme by targeting small niches of a market, or even the smallest of market segments: individuals
Traditional Market Segmentation Approaches
Some organizations actually use more than one type of segmentation, depending on the brand, product, or market in question.
Companies aim mass marketing campaigns at the total (whole) market for a particular product. Undifferentiated approach that assumes that all customers in the market have similar needs an wants that can be reasonably satisfied with a single marketing program. Marketing Program consists of single product or brand, one price, one promotional program, and one distribution system. Works best when the needs of an entire market are relatively homogeneous. Good examples include commodities like oil and agricultural product. Although mass marketing is advantageous in terms of production efficiency and lower marketing costs, it is inherently risky. When barriers of trade are low, mass marketing runs the risk of being seen as too generic. Mass marketing is very risky in global markets.
1) dividing the total market into groups of customers having relatively common or homogeneous needs
2) attempting to develop a marketing program that appeals to one or more of these groups. This approach may be necessary when customer needs are similar within a single group, but their needs differ across groups. Multisegment approach-seek to attract buyers in more than one market segment by offering a variety of products that appeal to different needs. Multisegment approach is the most widely used segmentation strategy in medium-to large-sized firms. It is extremely common in packaged goods and grocery products. One third of the U.S. population is a minority. Minority populations have a large middle class with strong buying power. Core values such as family, faith, nationalism, respect for the elderly, and community leaders, and cultural institutions are the dominant features that define minority populations. Groups work hard to preserve their ethnic values and customs. Emotional connections to their own ethnic traditions. Digital communication-affinity for gadgets and respond well/ Or try to promote ethnic individuality. Market Concentration approach-focus on a single market segment. Main advantage is specialization. also major disadvantage of this.
Some companies narrow the market concentration approach even more and focus their marketing efforts on one small, well-defined market segment or niche that has a unique, specific set of needs. Will typically pay higher prices for products that match their specialized needs. The key to successful niche marketing is to understand and meet the needs of target customers so completely that the firms substantial share makes the segment highly profitable.
Individualized Segmentation Approaches
By combining demographic data with past and current purchasing behavior, organizations can tweak their marketing programs in ways that allow them to precisely match customers’ needs, wants, and preferences. Three types of individualized segmentation are one-to-one marketing, mass customization, and permission marketing.
When it creates an entirely unique product or marketing program for each customer in the target segment. The key to one-to-one marketing is personalization, where every element of the marketing program is customized to meet the specifics of a particular client’s situation. The key to one-to-one marketing is personalization. One-to-one marketing has been used less often in consumer markets. Ex: Amazon profiles assist with the customization of web pages in real time, product suggestions, and reminder e-mails sent to customers.
Providing unique products and solutions to individual customers on a mass scale. Along with the Internet, advances in supply chain management-including real time inventory control-have allowed companies to customize products in ways that are both cost-effective and practical. Occurs in business markets. System allows employees to requisition goods and services via a customized catalog-unique to the firm-where the buying firm has negotiated the products and prices. E-procurement systems have allowed firms to save a great deal of money-not only on prices, but also on the costs of placing orders.
Customers choose to become part of a firms market segment. Opt-in email list-permit a firm to send periodic e-mail about goods and services that they have interest in purchasing. Customers who opt in have already shown interest in the goods and services offered by the firm. Allows firm to precisely target only those individuals with an interest in their products, thereby eliminating wasted marketing effort and expense. One-to-one marketing, mass customization, and permission marketing will become even more important in the future because their focus on individual customers makes them critical to the development and maintenance of long-term relationships. The simple truth is that customers will maintain relationships with firms that best fulfill their needs or solve their problems. The delivery of the marketing program must be automated to a degree that misses it cost-efficient. The marketing program must not become so automated that the offerings lacks personalization. Changing customers choices-not only in terms of product configuration, but also int terms of the entire marketing program. Customers can choose payment terms, shipping terms, delivery locations, gift wrapping, and whether to opt in e-commerce firms can offer product suggestions on the fly. Customized point-of-scale information not only increases sales, it also better fulfills customer’s needs and increases the likelihood of establishing long-term customer relationships.
Criteria for Successful Segmentation
- Identifiable and Measurable-characteristics of segment’s number must be easily identifiable. Allows the firm to measure identifying characteristics, including the segment’s size and purchasing power.
- Substantial-must be large and profitable enough to make it worthwhile for the firm. The profit potential must be greater than the costs involved in creating a marketing program specifically for the segment.
- Accessible-The segment must be accessible in terms of communication (advertising, mail, telephone) and distribution (channels, merchants, retail outlets, etc.)
- Responsive-Must respond to the firms marketing efforts, including changes to the marketing program over time. Respond differently than other segments.
- Viable and Sustainable-Meet the basic criteria for exchange, including being ready, willing, and able to conduct business with the firm. Must also be sustainable over time for serving the needs of the segment.
Identifying Market Segments
ability to identify the characteristics of buyers within those markets. Variables including demographics, lifestyles, product usage, or firm size, derive from the situation analysis. Target markets shift in response to changing elements of marketing strategy:
Reducing price to enhance value, increasing price to connote higher quality, adding a new product feature to make the benefits more meaningful, or selling though retail stores instead of direct distribution, to add the convenience of immediate availability Target market and the marketing program are interdependent, and changes in one typically require changes in the other.
Segmenting Consumer Markets
Goal-isolate individual characteristics that distinguish one or more segments from the total market. China is the world’s most populous country and is the second-largest economy. Difficult to market because of the sheer size of the country, its complicated language with multiple dialects, and its relatively low personal incomes compared to western standards. Prefer tea to soft drinks. China’s retail market is growing faster than the U.S.market. Trust-mart-China’s top retailer. Chinese consumers favor local merchants because of their low prices and freshness of foods. Difficulty in segmenting consumer markets lies in isolating one or more characteristics that closely align with these needs and wants.
Variables: product usage, occasions or situations, price sensitivity
Examples: Quality, value, taste, image enhancement, beauty, sportiness, speed, excitement, entertainment, nutrition, and convenience
Heavy, medium, and light users; nonusers; former users; first-time users
Emergencies, celebrations, birthdays, anniversaries, weddings, births, funerals, graduation
Price sensitive, value conscious, status conscious (not price sensitive)
Age: 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-39, 50-64, 65+
Family Life cycle
The most powerful approach because it uses actual consumer behavior or product usage to make distinctions among market segments. Most closely associated with consumer needs. Group consumers based on their extent of product usage-heavy, medium, and light users. Create market segments based on specific consumer benefits. Conducting research to identify segments is expensive, time-consuming, and sometimes unclear. The key to successful behavioral Market Segmentation is to clearly understand the basic needs and benefits sought by different consumer groups. Then this information can be combined with demographic, psycographic, and geographic segmentation to create complete consumer profiles.
Divides markets into segments using demographic factors such as gender, age, income, and education. Widely Available and relatively easy to measure. The connection between demographics, needs, and desired product benefits can make demographic segmentation quite easy. The problem in understanding consumer motives and values is that these variables depend more on what consumers think and feel rather than on who they are. Delving into consumer thoughts and feelings is the subject of psycho-graphic segmentation.
Deals with state-of-mind issues such as motives, attitudes, opinions, values, lifestyles, interests, and personality. Issues are more difficult to measure, and often require primary marketing research to properly determine the makeup and size of various market segments. Once firm identifies one or more pychographic segments, they can be combined with demographic, geographic, or behavioral segmentation to create fully developed consumer profiles.
VALS Values and lifestyles. Consumption motives: ideals knowledge and principles, achievement demonstrating success to others, or self-expression (social or physical activity) variety, and risk taking). Many companies use Vales including new product development, product positioning, brand development, promotional strategy, and media placement. Psycho graphic segmentation is useful because it transcends purely descriptive characteristics to help explain personal motives, attitudes, emotions, and lifestyles directly connected to buying behavior.
Consumer preferences for certain purchases based on geography are a primary consideration in developing trade areas for retailers such as grocery stores, gas stations, and dry cleaners. Geodemographic segmentation, or geoclustering, is an approach that looks at neighborhood profiles based on demographic, geographic, and lifestyle segmentation variables. Geoclustering tools: Claritas’ PRIZM NE Segmentation system, which classifies every neighborhood in the United States into one of 66 different demographic and behavioral clusters.
VALS CONSUMER PROFILES
have abundant resources and high self-esteem, successful, sophisticated consumers who hava taste for upscale, innovative, and specialized goods and services. Concerned about image as an expression of self, but not as an expression of status or power.
well-educated consumers who value order, knowledge, and responsibility. Conservative consumers who look for practicality, durability, funcitonality, and value.
focused and structured around family, a place of worship, and career. Are conventional, conservative, and respect authority and the status quo. Very active consumers who desire established, prestigious products and services that demonstrate their success. Value products that can save them time and effort.
Young, enthusiastic, and impulsive consumers who are motivated by self-expression. Emphasize variety, excitement, the offbeat, and the risky. Experiencers enjoy looking good and buying “cool” products.
Example products: Fashion, Entertainment, sports/exercise, outdoor recreation, and social activities
Are conservative, conventional consumers who hold steadfast beliefs based on traditional values related to family, religion, community and patriotism. Follow established routines centered on family, community, or organizational membership. Prefer familiar and well-known American Brands and tend to be very loyal customers.
Motivated by achievement, yet they lack the resource to meet all their devices. Strivers are trendy, fun loving, and concerned with the opinions and approval of others. See shopping as a social activity and an opportunity to demonstrate their purchasing power up to the limits imposed by their financial situations.
Motivated by self-expression. Engaging in many do-it yourself activities such as repairing their own cars, building houses, or growing and canning their own vegetables. Practical consumers who value self-sufficiency and have the skills to back it up. Also unimpressed by material possessions, new ideas, or big business. They live traditional lives and prefer to buy basic items.
Narrowly focused lives and have few resources with which to cope. Primarily concerned with safety, security, and meeting needs rather fulfilling wants. Survivors are cautious consumers who represent a fairly small market for most products. Loyal to favorite brands. Marketers will discover that buying firms have unique and varying characteristics. In addition to the types of business markets, firms can also segment business buyers with respect to the following.
- Type of organization-different and specific marketing programs, such as product modifications, different distribution and delivery structures, or different selling strategies.
- Organizational characteristics-vary based on their size, geographic location, or product usage. Large buyers often command price discounts and structural relationships that are appropriate for their volume of purchases. Buyers in different parts of the country, may have varying product requirements, specifications, or distribution arrangements.
- Benefits sought or buying processes: some business buyers seek only the lowest cost provider, whereas others require extensive product support and service. Some business buy using online auctions or even highly informal processes.
- Personal and Psychological Characteristics: The personal characteristics of the buyers themselves often play a role in segmentation decisions. Buyers vary according to risk tolerance, buying influence, job responsibilities, and decision styles.
- Relationship intensity-strength and longevity of the relationship with the firm. Other members of the selling organization may be involved in business development strategies to seek out new customers.
Target Marketing Strategies
Once firm has completed segmenting a market, it must then evaluate each segment to determine its attractiveness and where it offers opportunities that meet the firms capabilities and resources. Attractive segments may be dropped for lack of resources, no synergy with the firms mission, overwhelming competition in the segment, an impeding technology shift, or ethical and legal concerns over targeting a particular segment.
- Single Segment Targeting-capabilities are intrinsically tied to the needs of a specific market segment. This strategy is for true specialists in a particular product category. Firms fully understand their customers’ needs, preferences, and lifestyles. Constantly strive to improve quality and customer satisfaction by continuously refining their products to meet changing customer preferences.
- Selective Targeting-Firms that have multiple capabilities in many different product categories. Advantages include diversification of the firm’s risk and the ability to cherry pick only the most attractive market segment opportunities. P an G uses selective targeting to offer customers many different products in the family care, household care, and personal care markets. Success is that the company does not try to be all things to all customers. Company carefully selects product/market combinations where its capabilities match customers’ needs.
- Mass Marketing Tactics-only the largest firms, which involves the development of multiple marketing programs to serve all customer segments simultaneously.
- Product Specialization-where their expertise in a product category can be leverage across many different market segments.
- Market Specialization-when their intimate knowledge and expertise in one market allows them to offer customized marketing programs that not only deliver needed products but also provide needed solutions to customers’ problems.
Non-customers do not purchase a firms products because they can include unique customer needs, better competing alternatives, high switching costs, lack of product awareness, or the existence of the long-held assumptions about a product. The key to targeting non-customers lies in understanding the reasons why they do no buy and then finding ways to remove these obstacles. Removing obstacles to purchase, whether they exist in product design, affordability, distribution convenience, or product awareness, is a major strategic issue in developing an effective marketing program.