Monthly Archives: January 2017

GOOGLE MOBILE

From 2011 to 2013, smartphone adoption in the U.S. grew from 36% to 61% (source). And tablet owners grew significantly. 4 in 5 consumers use search engines to find products, services, or experiences nearby. 84% use search engines on their computer or tablet and even more (88%) do so on their smartphone (source). Retailers are waking up to the power of capturing mobile demand. According to Digby 70% of top retailers now offer mobile apps. Further research indicates that 78% of fast food chains, 75% of casual dining brands, 77% of big box retailers, 59% of specialty stores, and 58% of grocery stores have mobile apps (source). You can use the Consumer Barometer to understand the multi-screen world, the smart shopper, and the smart viewer, and share the graphs or export them as GSVs or PNGs. “The Multi-screen World, The Smart Shopper, and the Smart Viewer can be used to undersatnd the customer journey. 68% of mobile searches occur at home(source). W88% of clicks on mobile search ads are incremental to organic clicks. In certain industries, this figure can be as high as 97% (source). 80% of smartphone users use mobile phones for shopping research, and 80% of those shoppers do their mobile research in store (source).

 

The use of mobile phones in stores has led to the phenomenon of “showrooming,” which turns brick-and-mortar stores into showrooms for products that are then purchased online or via mobile. Mobile can help you promote your app, drive calls to your business, drive online leads or sales, drive in-store sales, and help you build awareness. Apps offer unique ways to engage with your best customers, including connecting through social and gaming. They can also aid the offline experience,  driving e-commerce and loyalty. The biggest challenges of promoting an app are driving discovery and installation, driving engagement, and driving conversion of your most valuable customers. For many businesses, re-engagement is fundamental

  1. More usage (since you monetize by serving ads in your app, like a traditional media publisher)
  2. More brand awareness (e.g., for key brands, driving continued awareness of the parent brand or specific product launches)

The key is identifying whom you want to re-engage and deciding how you’ll do it. app indexing,  deep-linking, formats and targeting that are optimized for re-engagement. The easy-to-use remarketing lists leverage YouTube (videos watched), Google Play (automated), and Google Analytics (user segmentation), along with first- and third-party data.

  1. Build remarketing lists: Define in-app triggers (e.g., dropped out of purchase flow) or key segments (e.g., lapsed users) to target

  2. Do proactive outreach: Consider available channels (e-mail, app push notifications, back of register tape, in-app) to re-engage

  3. Offer something unique: Provide a unique experience (in-store reward, exploding offer, or discount)

  4. Deep-link: Develop your app so it directs people into deeper, more targeted sections

  5. Track: Measure everything beyond installs to understand your most valuable customers and their behaviors (subscriptions, retail purhcases, etc.)

Mobile app revenue comes from in-app purchases. Measure the lifetime value (LTV) of your users with Google Analytics. AdWords lets you track conversions with a  codeless solution, use conversion tracking, and target cost-per-action (CPA) optimization. You can also identify and target customers based on segments.

 

  • Creating a seamless checkout: For in-app purchases or e-commerce, make checkout a breeze (e.g., log-in/pay button, fewer clicks and fields, 1-click purchase)

  • Tracking purchases: Measure each customer’s (or segment’s) lifetime value and shopping behavior by monitoring conversions

  • Offering something unique: Consider reputable third parties that can help with more-complex tracking/reporting (e.g., x-device, x-platform). Drive specific conversions (e.g., camera, location, QR codes, alerts, offline)

 

Consumers want a choice in how they reach your business — sometimes it’s easier to call. Consumers are calling more frequently than ever Don’t miss out on the demand for calls; they can generate sales and real results for your business Using seo keywords/search ads and then using retargeting ads to lower CPA. Call extensions give you the ability to dial a number and should be used if you want to focus exclusively on driving calls. Call-only ads are a great option for advertisers with no mobile site or low mobile conversion rates. Google forwarding numbers enable rich call reporting. Calls are seamlessly routed through a dynamic number (different for every campaign, ad group, ad, and keyword). Your phone rings normally but the forwarding lets you:

  1. see which keywords, ads, ad groups, and campaigns might be driving calls to your business
  2. understand your return on investment (ROI) and make better-informed decisions about your ad spend
  3. use flexible bid strategies (such as target CPA and target ROAS) that automatically optimize campaigns according to your business goals

You can see all the calls your ads drove to your business, including when they were made, whether they were connected, their duration, and their area code.  Count conversions from cross-device sessions, calls sourced from click-to-call actions, in-store visits, and purchases facilitated by store locator searches from smartphones, and those from your mobile app. Target consumers at the right locations, Drive them to your business with the right ad, Measure the offline impact of your online spend, and Optimize for omnichannel performance.

Use location bid adjustments to reach people nearby. If a mobile user is near your store, use location bid adjustments to raise bids by a percentage that you’ve pre-set. This gives your ad a higher rank and more visibility with these people. Relevant ads can show on Google Maps when someone does a search. They show on both desktop and mobile, and include a title, text, and link for directions. Location extensions let prospective customers instantly get directions to your business or make a call from your ad. They give mobile users extra information, saving them from having to hunt down details. With one click, they can find out how close your store is and also get directions. Image-based local inventory search ads tell people you’ve got what they want, and how close they are to your store. When a shopper clicks on your ad, they go to a Google-powered local storefront that displays other inventory and prices in your store, based on your local inventory data feed. It’s easy for a prospective customer to pop in to your store and pick up an item . . . and maybe more.

The AdWords geographic report can help you assess performance at different levels of targeting and identify location bid adjustment opportunities. You can see certain queries near your store, which can help you understand the offline impact. And you can use other tools, including store visits reporting and store transactions attribution, to help  determine how online ads lead to store visits and drive in-store transactions. When people are in your store, for instance, searching for a different color or size of an item, they can also view your local inventory in the local storefront, helping them shop inside your shop. Budgeting and bidding decisions must incorporate the value of consumers’ offline actions that were influenced by your online advertising. Omnichannel seeks to provide the customer with a seamless shopping experience. To optimize omnichannel performance: online, app, offline. Google My Businessis a good starting place. consumers do searches related to your business, they see your location, store hours, and phone number. If search gets you 2 offline sales for every online sale, and you’re not measuring that, you’ll undervalue your search spend. Your bids will be too low and you’ll leave sales and profits on the table — online and offline. In the long term, you won’t be able to compete with those who measure and bid based on a more complete picture

A recent study found that 56% of impressions aren’t even seen. With YouTube’s huge scale (it reaches more 18-34-year-olds than any U.S .cable network), you can quickly connect with your audience. Ultimately, there are 5 reasons: mobile reach, ad formats that drive engagement and value, campaign performance and tracking optimization, integration with Google Play for tracking and targeting, and inventory transparency.

Across the mobile landscape, Google has global reach:

  • Mobile app network with more than 650,000 apps (source)
  • Top mobile search engine
  • Mobile web display network with more than 500,000 mobile-optimized sites on the GDN (source)
  • Mobile video platform with half of YouTube views on mobile devices (source)
  • Mobile email client with Gmail

Measure mobile actions that users take (e.g., purchase, call, app download, directions) across channels (e.g., search, video, display, in-app), and across devices. Google lets you turn data into action with its bidding, targeting, and optimization tools. You can turn cross-channel and -device insights into bidding and optimization decisions.

  • Conversion Optimizer for apps: AdWords automatically takes into account dozens of signals (e.g., location, time of day, CTR, device) and adjusts bids accordingly across search and display inventory to help advertisers hit desired cost-per-install goals
  • Confirmed clicks: Google’s mobile display ads help prevent accidental clicks by verifying each person’s intentions before directing to the app download page
  • Automatic exclusions: Google’s mobile app promotion template ads are automatically excluded from showing to people who’ve already downloaded the app

Google Play, you get unique insights and custom targeting.

  • Similar app installers: Target users who’ve downloaded apps in the same category as yours (e.g, a hotel-finder app could target those who’ve already download travel apps)
  • In-app purchasers: Target users who’ve either paid for apps or made a purchase within an app (e.g., a gaming advertiser might target people who’ve previously spent money in game apps)
  • Codeless Android app install tracking: Google lets advertisers track their Android downloads without having to add code to the app

The best practices below are part of Google’s Best Practices Series,

 

 

Apps can offer features that mobile sites can’t, such as notifications, camera integration, and one-click purchasing.To that end, companies should develop their apps to enable “deep linking,” which makes it possible for online ads to direct users into deeper, more targeted sections of an app than the homepage. This can be an invaluable tool for engaging with existing app users and immediately driving them to new offers, products, or features that can be accessed or bought within the app. Select events that are likely to take place within a short time frame, such as 30 days, in order to identify valuable users early. Include actions focused on engagement, such as opening the app or searching within it, in addition to transaction-oriented actions.

 

Set your mobile bid based on the value mobile generates.

  1. From the Campaigns tab, click Segment and choose Device  
  2. Choose campaigns with enough data for consistent results (90 days/more than 20 conversions on both Mobile and Computer)
  3. Find Computer conversion rate and mobile conversion rate using Estimated Total Conversions column.
  4. Divide mobile conversion rate by computer conversion rate -1

For example:

  • Mobile conversion rate = 4.43%
  • Computer conversion rate = 3.96%
  • (4.43% / 3.96%) -1 = 0.118 = 12%

mobile bid formula:

Mobile bid = (mobile conversion rate / desktop conversion rate) – 1

  • Display Planner generates ideas for all the ways you can target the Display Network. Targeting ideas are based on your customers’ interests or your landing page. They include keywords, placements (websites, videos, mobile apps, mobile app categories), topics, interests (affinities, in-market segments), demographics (age, gender), and remarketing.

You can find the Display Planner under the Tools.

Keyword Planner

  • Search for keyword and ad group ideas based on terms that describe your product or service, website, or a product category related to what you’re advertising. You can also enter or upload a list of keywords. And you can multiply 2 or more lists of keywords to create a new combined list.
  • Get historical statistics on the number of times people have searched for a keyword or its competitiveness. Get traffic estimates, like how many clicks and impressions your keywords might get for given bid and budget amounts.
  • Contextual targeting: Match ads to sites or pages based on the keywords or topics you’ve chosen (automatic placements). AdWords analyzes each website’s content and theme, considering factors such as text, language, link structure, and page structure. Using these, Google determines the central themes of each webpage and targets AdWords ads to the page based on your keyword or topic selections and other factors, including pages a person seeing your ad has recently browsed.
  • Keyword targeting: Choose words or phrases related to your product or service so Google can automatically target your ads to relevant websites your customers visit on the Google Display Network ( automatic placements).
  • Topic targeting: Target your ad to multiple pages about specific topics at once. Topic targeting lets you reach a broad range of pages on the Display Network.
  • Placement targeting: Choose websites your customers visit on the Display Network where you’d like to see your ads. A placement can be an entire website or a subset of a site. Google looks only at your chosen sites (managed placements) when searching for relevant places to display your ads. Unlike contextual targeting (automatic placements), placement targeting doesn’t require keywords.
  • Audience targeting: Show your ads to specific groups of people as they visit Display Network websites and apps. You can reach people who’ve previously visited your site by creating a remarketing campaign, or by showing your ads to affinity audiences, in-market audiences, similar audiences, or other interests. For example, you can select affinity audiences to reach potential customers at scale and make them aware of your business. If you want to reach customers who are researching and actively considering buying products or services like those you offer, you can select in-market audiences.
  • You can also use “Other interests” audience categories to reach customers who may be likely to visit your site and who have interests that aren’t included in the affinity audiences or in-market audiences.
  • Device targeting: Choose to show ads to people when they visit Display Network sites only on desktop and laptop computers, only on iPhones and Android devices, or on all of these.

Example

If your business sells Tshirts, you could add the keyword “buy tshirts” and the topic “Hobbies & Leisure > Special Occasions > Holidays & Seasonal Events,” and target your image ad to iPhones or Android devices. Then, when people on their phones visit sites on the Display Network that have information about buying costumes, Halloween or Mardi Gras, they could see your image ad.

Advanced targeting options

You can target specific operating systems, device models, as well as carriers and wireless networks with a “Display Network only” campaigns. Advanced mobile and tablet options aren’t available for other campaign types. Learn how to set up advanced targeting options.

Types of flexible bid strategies

Flexible bid strategy When to use it Where to apply it
1 Maximize clicks automatically sets bids to help you get the most clicks within a target spend amount that you choose

Flexible version of automatic bidding

When site visits are your primary goal

When you want to maximize traffic on long tail terms while keeping within a certain spend

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
2 Target search page location automatically adjusts bids to help you get your ads to the top of the page or the first page of search results

New bid strategy

When you want more visibility on the first page of Google search results or in the top positions Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
3 Target outranking share automatically sets bids to help you outrank another domain’s ads in search results

New bid strategy

When you want more visibility than other domains in search results Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
4 Target cost-per-acquisition (CPA) automatically sets bids to help you get as many conversions as possible while reaching your average cost-per-acquisition goal

Flexible version of Conversion Optimizer

When you want to get the most conversions with your target CPA Campaigns, ad groups
5 Enhanced cost-per-click (ECPC) automatically adjusts your manual bid up or down based on each click’s likelihood to result in a conversion

Flexible version of Enhanced CPC

When conversions are the main objective, but you also want control over keyword bids Campaigns, ad groups
6 Target return on ad spend (ROAS) automatically sets your bids to maximize your conversion value, while trying to reach an average return on ad spend

New bid strategy

When you value conversions differently and want to meet a target ROAS Campaigns, ad groups, keywords

See which features are available by campaign type.

App remarketing lets you target people who’ve used your app. Showing app engagement ads announcing a new feature to people currently using your app.Reminding people who downloaded your app, but haven’t been using it recently. Encouraging people to upgrade to the latest version of your app. You can even segment your target audience based on past actions in order to enhance your ROI and relevance to users.

For example, an advertiser can show a particular ad to people who’ve made a purchase in its app. An app developer can promote a paid version of an app to users who’ve reached a certain level in the free version. And a store can promote boots to people who buy boot-related merchandise within its app.

To run a mobile remarketing campaign, you’ll need to set up a remarketing list. You can also incorporate usage data that lets you create remarketing lists based on how frequently a customer is using an app — and remarket based on this information. Reporting usage data on Android or iOS is possible using the AdWords Conversion Tracking and Remarketing SDK or the server-to-server solution.

Mobile display inventory is made up of two different ad networks.

 

  • AdMob Network- AdMob lets advertisers monetize apps and promote ads. App developers use the AdMob software development kit (SDK) to display ads in their apps. AdMob also has extensive mobile app inventory, giving AdWords advertisers access to a network of hundreds of thousands of mobile apps. You can use placement, app category, demographic, interest-based, and app remarketing targeting.
  • Mobile Google Display Network- The mobile Google Display Network is comprised of mobile websites and apps. You can use keyword contextual targeting (KCT), placement, topic, demographic, interest-based, and web remarketing targeting.

 

Extensions

Call extensions Encourage phone calls to your business by showing your phone number on your ad. Display a clickable call button with your ad (on high-end mobile devices) and it costs the same as a headline click (standard CPC). For call-only campaigns, ads appear only on devices capable of making calls. You can set numbers to show only when your business can accept calls. You can count calls as conversions. Learn more about call conversions. Call extensions can typically increase clickthrough rate by 6-8%

Location extensions Show your business address, phone number, and a map marker with ad text. On mobile, they include a link with directions to your business. Clicks on ads with location extensions have a standard cost per click. Location extensions encourage people to visit you in person. You can link your account to Google My Business. On average, ads with location extensions have a 10% boost in clickthrough rate

This is a great way to provide access to your website as well as to your app. If your primary goal is to drive app downloads, app promotion ads (which link to apps exclusively) might be the better option.

 

Where mobile ads can appear Ad types
On mobile devices with full browsers,

such as smartphones or tablets

Within apps on smartphones and tablets
  • Text ads
  • Image ads
  • App promotion ads
  • Image app promotion ads
  • Video app promotion ads
Only on devices that can make calls
  • Call-only ads

Types of mobile ads

App promotion ads (formerly “click-to-download” ads) are the easiest and most effective way to drive downloads: much of the customization is done for you. You can run these ads across search and display using the App/digital content ad format. App promotion ads can be created in these types of campaigns:

  • Display Network: “Ads in mobile apps,” “Mobile app installs,” and “Mobile app engagement”

  • Search Network: “Mobile app installs” and “Mobile app engagement”

These ads are designed to show on devices where they’ll have the most impact. When you create a new campaign to promote your mobile app, your ads show only on phones and tablets (not on desktop computers). “Mobile app engagement” campaigns are a great choice for advertisers focused on connecting with people who already have their app. These ads can:

  1. Encourage users to try your app again
  2. Remind someone to open your app and take a specific action
  3. Help people complete an activity they already started
  4. Increase how often people use your app
  5. Recommend someone try out specific features or levels

Two useful tools in app engagement ads:

  1. Deep linking: A deep link takes someone directly from your ad to in-app actions with a click.
  2. Remarketing: Show ads to people who’ve visited your website or used your mobile app.

Mobile app installs

With “Mobile app installs” campaigns on the Search and Display Networks and “TrueView for mobile app promotion” on YouTube, you can create custom app install ads that run exclusively on phones and tablets. AdWords can help you create app install ads based on your app icon and reviews, and these ads can then take people straight to the app store to download it.

 

Campaign types

This chart shows how an advertiser could use a particular ad type and campaign type depending on their advertising goal.  

“Mobile app installs” campaigns “Mobile app engagement” campaigns “Ads in mobile apps” campaigns
Advertising goal Increase app downloads with ads sending people directly to app stores to download your app. Learn more Re-engage people who use your app with ads that deep link to specific screens within your mobile app. Learn more Show ads for your website exclusively in mobile apps. Learn more
Campaign type
  • Search Network campaigns
  • Display Network campaigns
  • AdWords for Video campaigns
  • Search Network campaigns
  • Display Network campaigns
  • Display Network campaigns
Available ad formats
  • App install ads
  • Image app install ads
  • Video app install ads
  • App engagement ads
  • Text ads
  • Image ads
  • App install ads

Google offers an array of flexible ad formats to meet advertisers’ brand needs such as  Lightbox, Viewable CPM, and In-app display.

Lightbox

Lightbox is a new cross-screen format platform designed mobile first. It renders beautifully on any screen, and optimizes for taps/swipes on mobile and mouse-overs/clicks on desktops. Viewability measures, in real-time and on an impression-by-impression basis, whether or not a display ad is rendered on screen and for how long. There are two distinct aspects of viewability at Google: buying viewable impressions on CPM for display ads and auction in-stream video ads for Google Video Network and YouTube inventory, as well as Active View reporting.

In-app display

  • If you want to experiment with advertising in mobile apps, simply track the performance of your ads that were placed in mobile apps through the Display Network. You don’t have to make any changes to do this: apps are part of the Display Network. Learn how to track the performance of ads in apps in targeting apps through the Display Network.
  • If you want to reach certain categories of apps, or you know the apps you want to target, you should create a Display Network campaign devoted to mobile apps. Learn more about these campaigns in reaching specific apps or app categories in the Display Network.
  • If you don’t want your ad to appear in apps:
    1. From the Display Network tab, go to “Campaign Exclusions.”
    2. In the “Placements” section, paste adsenseformobileapps.com.

Google’s video offering on mobile

  1. Video Masthead — Including optional interactivity; The mobile video Masthead is a home page ad similar to the desktop video Masthead in that the format is based on a YouTube video. It appears on the home page of all YouTube mobile and tablet properties, including the Android native mobile app, the iOS app, and m.youtube.com for smartphones and tablets.
  2. TrueView in-stream ads — Skippable pre-rolls and mid-rolls, including optional interactivity features; TrueView in-stream ads run on videos served on YouTube watch pages or within Display Network videos, games, and apps. They may also run on YouTube videos that are embedded on other sites, and can appear on Android and iOS YouTube apps.
  3. Reserve in-stream ads — Reservation-booked skippable (In-Stream Select) and non-skippable (standard in-stream) pre- and mid-rolls
  4. TrueView video discovery ads — Banner template with video thumbnail and text description that drives YouTube video watch page; In AdWords, you can create and manage video campaigns by using the TrueView family of cost-per-view (CPV) video ad formats. If an advertiser is going to use an app promotion ad, they’ll most likely be using the Install App ad format.

Mobile app install campaigns

With “Mobile app installs” campaigns, an advertiser can focus an entire campaign on getting more people to download the app. more downloads could improve the app store ranking, which could result in even more people downloading their app. “Mobile app installs” campaigns are available on both the Search and Display Networks. On YouTube, you can create a “TrueView for mobile app promotion” campaign to drive app downloads. Learn more about app installs campaigns. YouTube

  1. Remarketing for “mobile app engagement” campaigns; You can use remarketing lists to show ads to specific groups of people based on how they interact with your app.
  2. Deep links allow you to take someone who clicks on your ad directly to a specific page or section in your app. Combined with remarketing, they can help you create a custom ad for your audience.
  3. Conversion and remarketing tags:
    1. People who did or didn’t recently use an app
    2. People using specific versions of an app
    3. People who took specific actions in an app

Keeping track of actions in your app

Tracking in-app conversions helps you understand how well your ads are working. To set up this tracking, you’ll need a snippet of code called a tag in order to send information from your app to AdWords. You can also track conversions using a third-party conversion tracking system.

App engagement does . . . App engagement doesn’t . . .
  • Drive existing app users back into the app
  • Use device IDs and play data
  • Allow ads to run in AdMob (other apps)
  • Allow clicks to “deep link” to a specific page/section of the app
  • Support dynamic ad creative or dynamic remarketing (unlike with desktop)
  • Use cookies
  • Allow ads to run on mobile sites or desktop

Deep Linking

A type of destination URL in an ad that takes people to a specific page in an app. Custom deep link lets app users open the app directly from other apps by clicking a link. This link takes you directly to the YouTube app download page in Google Play. A website deep link gives app users the ability to open your app directly from websites by clicking a link. Website Deep link – This link lets someone choose to open the YouTube app download page either in Google Play or with their mobile browser. App Indexing is a deep link specially designed for Google Search. Both custom and website deeplinks can be converted into app indexing deep links.

  1. For Google Display ads (AdMob), only custom deep links are allowed. This will be the destination URL of your ad.
  2. For Google Search ads, you can convert either a custom or a website deep link into an app-indexing deep link. The app-indexing deep link is your ad’s destination URL.

Not being able to track a conversion through the purchase funnel generally occurs in four categories:

  1. Cross-device (a consumer searches and clicks on one device but converts on another, often moving from mobile to desktop)
  2. Calls (a consumer searches and clicks on a device but ends up calling the business to convert)
  3. In store (a consumer searches and clicks on a device but ends up going to the store to make the purchase)
  4. In app (a consumer searches and clicks on a device but ends up opening or downloading the app and converting in the app)

Full Value of Mobile (FVOM) promotes the idea that mobile conversions are about much more than just mobile commerce, and that conversions in a store, via phone, or on a PC may have originated from a mobile phone.

Conversion Actions

 

 

Imports: Track offline conversions

Setting up advanced conversion tracking features

2 types of app conversion tracking: app download conversions and in-app conversions. App downloads are tracked when a user downloads or installs a mobile application for the first time. In-app conversions are tracked when a user takes a specific action within a mobile app.

TrueView ads are billed on “views” (or engaged views). A view is counted when someone:

  1. Watches 30 seconds of the video or the full video, whichever happens first.
  2. Clicks through to an app store in TrueView for app promotion ads.

YouTube conversions consist of click conversions and view-through conversions. Click conversions occur when users reach a billable event and then convert. For example, a user views 30 seconds of a video and then installs an app. View-through conversions occur when someone sees an ad impression but there’s no billable event. For example, they skip an ad and then install an app.

There are two types of mobile TrueView ads:

  1. TrueView in-stream (a skippable video ad that plays before video content)
  2. TrueView video discovery (a thumbnail on the mobile home page. When someone clicks on the ad, they’re taken to the watch page)  

YouTube mobile app install campaigns are designed to track downloads of the app being advertised. There are two options for conversion tracking for YouTube on mobile:

  1. Codeless conversion tracking for downloads of the app (Android only)
  2. Post-install events conversion tracking, such as first opens, in-app conversions via an SDK, or server-to-server pings (iOS and Android)

Four solutions you can use to implement app conversion tracking on Android:

  1. Codeless
  2. Software Development Kit (SDK)
  3. Server-to-server (S2S)
  4. App install confirmation

Audience reports tell you more about what kinds of visitors are coming to your site or app — by demographics, location, language, devices, etc. Acquisition reports let you compare traffic from different sources, from your AdWords campaign to non-AdWords sources. Behavior reports can help you improve the content on your site to better fit your visitors’ needs and expectations.

Track mobile apps

Setting up Mobile App Analytics requires the Edit permission for a Google Analytics account and technical knowledge of your app development environment.

  • Total number of screens seen per session
  • Order in which screens are viewed
  • Number of technical errors, including app crashes
  • How long individual app elements take to load

 

SQL

The coding languages which is used to search a Database. A Database simply put, is a large collection of data stored in a large hard drive. There is a certain logic set behind why the Database is organized the way it is and why the data is kept in tables the way it is. Needless to say a database is created with a logic that will make it work the most optimal. SQL or Structured Query Language is a tool that allows us to search a database and retrieve and manipulate the data which we are searching for. It also helps Create, amend or delete tables which the data will be saved in.

to learn how to use SQL one must first understand the Logic behind the language and how it works. It is the understanding of how the tables are linked to one another that allows a more complicated search to be done using the tool.

To start with we must get a simple understanding of Data. Data is simply put, ‘raw’ fact such as telephone number. There are two main Data Types, Primitive Types and Composite Types. Primitive types are the basic building blocks of most programming languages. They include numbers, Strings and Booleans (0 and 1). Composite types  are a bundling of elements together and placed next to each other in the memory. Examples include array (Fixed size sequence of elements stored contiguously) or Records (persons name, age, nationality). A Data Structure is a Composite Type Data or a group of Composite Type Data associated by references.

in SQL all data is saved onto tables, these tables are made up of Columns and Records (rows). When being made the rows columns are given Data Types meaning only a certain data type can be saved into it. It is important to know this because for example when searching a column which saves telephone numbers which is a Int (integer) data type, one cannot search for letters. This shall be explained further when SQL examples are made.

Some other Data Types which columns have in SQL include:

  1. Int, tinyint : these two are used for numbers. tinyint is only 1 byte of storage which means 0-255
  2. char, varchar, text : used for characters in english. Char has a fixed length whereas Varchar allocates what is needed. if i allocate 10 bits to a char cell then i only have 10 spaces to but the letters. Useful when giving limit to cells.
  3. n char, ntext : used for unicode characters or international characters like japanese or arabic.
  4. date, datetime: used for Date and Time.

In order to retrieve the data which is needed, it is important to identify whether the data is in a single table or not. For example if there is a Hotel table in the database and we are trying to find the ‘Name’ and ‘HotelID’ we must first identify if both of these are kept in the Hotel table. If they are then it a simple query will be able to retrieve the data. However what if we also additionally want to retrieve the address for all of the hotels in the Hotel table. If the Address for the hotels is saved on a different table then we need to somehow connect the two tables and retrieve the desired data. in such a case a common denominator needs to be found between the two tables. There must be a key that individually connects the two tables. for example in the Hotel table there may be an AddressID column, this Address ID if entered into the Address table, shows the address which that ID corresponds to. Since we do not need the AddressID and it would be meaningless to us, we simply need to use it to connect to the Address table and retrieve the correct address for each hotel. This connection is called a join. There are four different types of join that can be used and they are as follows:

  1. Inner Join: this join only connects the data which is shared by both tables
  2. Left Join: this join connects all the data from table 1 and only the shared data from table 2
  3. Right Join: this join connects all the data from table 2 and only the shared data from table 1
  4. Full Join: this join connects the entire data from both tables 1 and 2.

Using the correct Join commands helps retrieving the data in the right way. however the most common join is the Inner join, and we shall show many examples of queries written using it. The following will be examples of simple SQL queries and their functions.

Grouping; SQL-Brings info from rows

SQL commands

  1. Select
  2. Top-How Many
  3. Count-Column Name
  4. From-Table Name
  5. Group by-Column by which you want
  6. Orderby-Columns you want to sort by
  7. Option-MaxDop 1

GROUP TOURS

The main reason people travel in groups is because they are afraid of being in a place where they can’t speak the language.  You cannot diverge from the program.  In an optional tour, guides are making their money; set tours offered by different times, free day, and commission for showing vendors.  Usually handicap people will not go in a group unless it is a special bus. Parking Cost is fixed between passenger and national parks; Divided by everyone in a group;

Reasons for cancellations:

  • Cancel Tour
  • Find Other People
  • Move to another Tour/Date
  • Increase Price