Monthly Archives: May 2017



It’s all about perception. Japan can be a place full of Jasmine Tea, quick naps, # block, #nuo street names. Japanese couples sleep in separate beds and don’t negotiate. They expect more on price. Their culture is strict and polite and bow with 2 hands when they give a business card. Know your audience.

TYPE of Beds & Bedding/Room Type:

  • Single-1; Price/person based on room types
  • Double-2
  • TRL-3
  • Quad-4
  • Rollaway-Fold Away
  • ADR-Total $/Total Room-Nights
  • Occupancy %-Total # of occupied rooms/total # of rooms
  • Room/Night-One occupied room during one night stay
  • Family Plan-Family plan, children don’t pay for stay; Kids pay for nothing below 12 years old
  • Extra Person
  • ADR=Total$/Total Room-Nights
  • Cancellation Rate-# of canceled bookings/total bookings % (UK is 14%, with Tourico 33%, and Brazil is 55%); People like to have multiple choices
  • Average Transaction Size=Total Sales ($)/#of consumed bookings
  • Average Stay=# of Room-nights/# of bookings
  • Lead Time (LT)=The Time Between the date of reservation and date of service
  • Sold Out-The hotels has no more rooms available for a certain night; Can you think of increasing ADR
  • Over Booking=The hotel took a risk and confirmed more than available

*Look at cars parked outside of motel and number of lights on. Orlando has a standard of 2 double beds. Bed based on family relations in hotel. Room types are how many people are allowed for the money you have made and defined by local relations (usually).  Fire department in the New York District.


Markup from Top is 100/1-10

Markup from Bottom is 100/10

Net + MU (%)=Selling Price

Google Display Advertising Exam

When you advertise on the Google Display Network, your ads can appear across a large collection of websites, mobile apps, and video content. Here are some examples:

  • Google AdSense publisher sites, including AdSense for Domains and AdSense for Errors
  • DoubleClick Ad Exchange publisher sites
  • Google sites such as Google Finance, Blogger, and YouTube (Google web search not included)

With over 2 million Display Network sites that reach over 90% of Internet users worldwide (Source: comScore), there are a lot of opportunities to reach customers. However, to target your customers effectively, choose campaign settings and add targeting methods to your ad groups that specify the conditions for when your ads can show on the Display Network.

Targeting methods available for your ad group

Targeting methods are used to match your ad to places or audiences on the Display Network. When you advertise on the Display Network, you have many targeting options. Before choosing an option, it’s important to understand the concept of a placement. Placements are locations on the Google Display Network where your ads can appear. A placement can be a website or a specific page on a site, a mobile app, video content, or even an individual ad unit.

Let’s take a look at three categories of targeting methods:

Contextual targeting: Match relevant site content

Website selling tents You can target based on relevant website content in two ways:

  • Content keywords: First, choose words and phrases relevant to your products and services. Then, AdWords looks for sites with content related to your keywords, to show your ads. When you add keywords to an all features campaign that targets the Display Network, you’ll find the keywords on the Display keywords tab, under the Display network tab. Note: This applies to keywords with “Content” selected for the keyword setting.
  • Topics: Similar to keywords, this lets you place your AdWords ads on website pages about the topics that you choose. Instead of developing a list of words or phrases, you choose categories of information, such as “Autos and Vehicles.”

With keywords and topics, Google selects relevant placements on the Display Network based on website content and other factors, to show your ads. These placements are labeled automatic placements in your statistics table on the Placements tab.

You can target your ads based on audiences in these ways:

  • Audiences: Depending on your advertising goals, you can choose the audience that best matches your customers. To drive brand awareness, use affinity audiences to reach TV-like audiences on a broad scale. To reach as many potential customers as possible with an affinity for a specific product area, you might try adding custom affinity audiences. To reach specific audiences actively shopping for a product or service, use in-market audiences instead.
    • You can also use keywords to reach audiences researching products or services like yours. Audience keywords allow your ads to reach people likely to be interested in certain terms, based on their current and past browsing behavior. Learn more about the “Audience” setting for display keywords.
  • Remarketing: This option can help you reach people who have previously visited your website while they visit other sites on the Google Display Network. You’ll find remarketing alongside interest categories in your account.
  • Demographics: This option allows you to reach people who are likely to be within the age, gender, and parental status demographic group that you choose.

The Display Network ad auction shares many similarities with the AdWords auction. Your ads are ranked among other advertisers’ ads based on Ad Rank, which is based on your Max CPC bid and Quality Score. This means that, if your Quality Score is sufficiently better than the score of the advertiser immediately below you, you could rank higher than that advertiser, even if this person’s bid is higher than yours.

Just like in the AdWords auction, your Max CPC bid isn’t necessarily how much you’ll pay per click. The price you pay — Actual CPC — depends on the outcome of the auction, and it’s often less than your Max CPC bid. You pay what’s required to rank higher than the ad position immediately below yours or to clear the auction floor, if any.

This is how the Display Network ad auction differs from the AdWords auction:

  • You’ll pay what’s required to rank higher than the next best ad position only for incremental clicks you get from being in the current position.
  • You’ll pay the price you would have for the next best ad position for the rest of the clicks.
  • You may pay an additional service fee for ads that use audience targeting. In such cases, your maximum bid is reduced before the auction and the fee is added to the closing auction price.
“Search Network only” “Search Network with Display Select”
Ad placement Standard & All features
Google search results,
search partner sites
Standard & All features
Google search results,
search partner sites,
Google Display Network sites and video
Ad formats Standard
Text ads*All features
Text ads*
Shopping ads
Dynamic search ads
App / digital content ads*Includes keyword insertion
Text ads*All features
Text ads*
Image ads
Display ad builder ads
App / digital content ads*Includes keyword insertion
Targeting Standard
KeywordsAll features
Remarketing lists for search only
KeywordsAll features
Remarketing lists for search only
Site category options
Bidding Standard & All features
Manual and automated bidding
for the Search Network.
Standard & All features
Manual and automated bidding
for the Search Network.
Automated bidding for the
Display Network.


The Ad gallery, formerly known as the display ad builder, is an ad-creation tool that offers various display ad formats in different categories, such as image ads, dynamic ads, Lightbox ads, and video ads, in any of your campaigns on the Google Display Network.

Here are some benefits of using the Ad gallery:

  • Differentiated products and services
  • More effective campaigns
  • No-cost ad templates
  • Customizable ad styles
  • Industry-standard ad templates

Be also sure to make sure that your website is mobile friendly:

  • Simplify site navigation. Streamline your site menu and try to keep everything visible without having to zoom in to read.
  • Make info accessible. Help people explore before they commit to buy by using expandable product images.
  • Help people make their purchase. Keep any directions or “buy now” buttons front and center, and if you can, use existing account info to limit data entry for your customers.
  • Allow people to pick up again on desktop. Make it easy for people to come back to their shopping cart when they’re on their desktop computer, so they can finish their purchase.
  • Use click-to-call buttons or links. Avoid making people memorize your number or zoom in to see it.
  • Condense your menu options. Make sure it’s clear that calls are the best way to get in contact with your business. Show a clickable phone number or button on every page of your site.
  • Avoid distractions. Keep promotions and other directions to the sidelines so people can focus on calling you.
  • Simplify your forms. Make sure people can access your forms easily, and that data entry is limited and easy to do with thumbs.
  • Limit scroll and zoom. Your form should only take up the space available on a mobile screen. Scrolling and zooming make it hard for people to avoid mistakes while entering their info.
  • Choose your data fields wisely. Make sure the information you’re requesting in your form is simple to access and easy to validate. Use validation to show errors for incomplete fields.
  • Encourage visits above all. Make it clear that it’s best for people to come to your physical store. Show a map, location button, or icon that links directly to your physical address and store hours on every page of the site.
  • Keep content limited. Streamline your site’s information navigation to provide enough information to convince people to visit your store.
  • Avoid distractions. Promotions can help convince people to visit your store, but they shouldn’t make navigation more difficult.
  • Simplify navigation. Help people research before they commit to purchase with a simple menu and larger text. Because a mobile screen is smaller, condense your menu options so that people can focus.
  • Keep consistency across devices. The longer it takes to for a customer to commit to buy, the more likely they are to do research on multiple devices before completing the transaction. Help them pick up where they left off by saving their selections.
  • Provide a home page link. If someone has hit a dead end in their research, make sure it is easy for them to get back to the home page to start over.

What each campaign setting means

Choose the AdWords experience you’re using. Learn more.

Setting Description References
Campaign name This is where you enter a name for your campaign. Although AdWords enters a default campaign name for you, you should choose a name that clearly describes the theme of the campaign so that you can easily find it in your account. Your campaign name isn’t visible to your customers.
Campaign type The campaign type you choose tailors the campaign setup to what’s appropriate for your goals. We recommend new advertisers start with a “Search Network with Display Select” campaign type, which offers a wide variety of potential placements for your ads.

You’ll also choose a campaign sub-type. If you prefer a simpler overview of your campaign and feature options, consider using the “Standard” campaign subtype; use “All features” if you want to see everything about your campaign and feature options.

Learn about choosing the campaign type that’s right for you
Networks The Networks setting indicates where you want your ad to appear based upon the campaign type you chose. For example, with the Google Search Network, your ad can appear on Google search sites and non-Google search sites (like CNN) that partner with Google to show search ads, called search partners.

With the Google Display Network, your ad shows on other sites that partner with Google to show ads.

Learn about the Search Network
Learn about the Display Network
Devices Campaigns target all types of devices, which include desktops, tablets, and mobile devices. Later, you can choose to customize ads for different devices. Learn about types of mobile ads
Locations and languages Your campaign’s ads are eligible to show to customers in your targeted geographic locations, or to customers who have selected your targeted language as their browser’s language setting. We recommend choosing the language you serve your customers in. Learn about location and language targeting
Bidding and budget Choose to manually set your bids for clicks on your ads or let AdWords do it for you. Depending on your campaign type, you may see additional bidding options to choose from.

Your bid strategy controls how you pay for users to interact with your ads. Your bid limit is the most you’ll pay per click for ads in an ad group. Your budget is the average amount you’re comfortable spending each day on your campaign. The budget you choose is entirely up to you, and you can adjust it at any time.

Learn how to set your bid and budget
Ad extensions Include even more information with your ads, such as location information, links to pages on your website, and your phone number. Learn how to enhance your ad using extensions
Additional settings Here are some additional optional features to help you optimize your campaign:

  • Schedule: Set a campaign start and end date.
  • Ad scheduling: Choose certain days or hours of the week for your ads to show.
  • Ad delivery: By default, AdWords shows your ads when they’re more likely to get clicks or conversions, but you can choose to show your ads more evenly throughout the day.
Learn how to use ad scheduling

Types of automated bid strategies

Goal Bid strategy Range
Increase site visits. Maximize Clicks automatically sets your bids to help get as many clicks as possible within your budget.

Maximize Clicks is available as either a standard strategy in a single campaign or portfolio bid strategy across multiple campaigns, ad groups and keywords.

Learn more about Maximize Clicks.

Learn more about Maximize Clicks for Shopping campaigns.

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
Increase visibility on the first page of Google search results or in the top positions. Target Search Page Location automatically sets your bids to help increase the chances that your ads appear at the top of the page or on the first page of search results.

It’s only available as a portfolio bid strategy on the Search Network.

Learn more about Target Search Page Location.

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
Get more visibility over other domains. Target Outranking Share: You choose another advertiser’s domain you want to outrank in ad position and how often you want to outrank it, and AdWords automatically sets your Search bids to help meet that target.

It’s only available as a portfolio bid strategy.

Learn more about Target Outranking Share.

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
Get more conversions with your target CPA. Target CPA automatically sets Search or Display bids to help get as many conversions as possible at the target cost-per-acquisition (CPA) you set. Some conversions may cost more or less than your target.

Target CPA bidding is available as either a standard strategy in a single campaign or portfolio bid strategy across multiple campaigns and ad groups.

Target CPA bidding was previously referred to as “Conversion Optimizer.”

Learn more about Target CPA.

Campaigns, ad groups
Increase conversions while staying in control of your keyword bids. Enhanced cost-per-click (ECPC) automatically adjusts your manual bids to help you get more conversions, while trying to achieve the same cost-per-conversion.

ECPC is available as an optional feature with Manual CPC bidding or as a portfolio bid strategy. It is fully compatible with third-party bidding systems, including those that automate your bids.

Learn more about Enhanced CPC.

Learn more about ECPC for Shopping campaigns.

Campaigns, ad groups
Meet a target return on ad spend (ROAS) when you value each conversion differently. Target ROAS automatically sets bids to help get as much conversion value as possible at the target return on ad spend (ROAS) you set. Some conversions may have a higher or lower return than your target.

It’s available as a portfolio bid strategy and a standard strategy for individual campaigns.

Learn more about Target ROAS.

Learn more about Target ROAS for Shopping campaigns.

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords
Get more conversions while spending your budget. Maximize Conversions automatically sets bids to help you get the most conversions for your campaign while spending your budget.

It’s available as a standard strategy for individual campaigns, but not as a portfolio bid strategy.

Learn more about Maximize Conversions.

Campaigns, ad groups, keywords

The power of AdWords Smart Bidding

Smart Bidding is a set of conversion-based bid strategies—Target CPA, Target ROAS and Enhanced CPC—that use advanced machine learning to help you tailor the right bid to each and every auction. It factors in a wide range of auction-time signals including device, location, time of day, remarketing list, language, and operating system to capture the unique context of every search.

How to monitor your campaign

The number of viewable impressions is shown in your campaign reporting. To see how many viewable impressions your ad received in a cost-per-thousand viewable impressions campaign, follow the steps below.

  1. On the Campaigns, Ad groups, Ads, or Display Network tab, click the Columns drop-down menu right above the statistics table.
  2. To add a pre-defined set of Viewable CPM columns, select Branding.
  3. To add specific Active View metrics, select “Modify columns” and click the Performance (Active View) metrics group. Click Add next to each column you wish to see in your reporting.
  4. When you go back to your table, you’ll see these columns:
    1. Active View viewable impr.: Shows the number of viewable impressions.
    2. Active View viewable CTR: Shows how often people clicked your ad after it became viewable.
    3. Active View avg. CPM: Shows the average cost for 1,000 viewable impressions.
    4. Active view measurable impr.: Shows the number of impressions that were able to be measured; not all impressions that are served are able to be measured.
    5. Active view measurable cost: Shows the total cost of impressions that were able to be measured.
    6. Active view measurable impr. / impr.: Shows the rate of impressions that were able to be measured over all impressions served. Sometimes referred to as the “measurability rate”.
    7. Active View viewable impr. / measurable impr.: Shows the rate of impressions that became viewable over impressions that were able to be measured. Sometimes referred to as the “viewability rate”.

ECPC is a form of AdWords Smart Bidding that uses a wide range of auction-time signals such as device, browser, location, and time of day to tailor bids to someone’s unique context, but not to the full extent of other Smart Bidding strategies, such as Target CPA and Target ROAS.

ECPC for text ads is available on the Search Network and the Display Network, but not for app installs campaigns. For Shopping ads, ECPC works only on Google Search.

ECPC is available as an optional feature with Manual CPC bidding or as a portfolio bid strategy.

Create responsive dynamic ads and standard dynamic ads.

Lightbox ads responsively combine your ad assets — like videos, image galleries, and maps — to fill available ad spaces. Lightbox ads may contain multiple videos, image galleries, or combinations of these.

Keywords Keywords + affinity audience Keywords + affinity audience + gender
Potential Display Network reach Potential Display Network reach Potential Display Network reach

Important note: For small and medium businesses, it’s better to set fewer targeting methods to “Target and bid” in an ad group. Otherwise you may be narrowing the reach of your ads so they rarely show.

Try advanced targeting combinations based on your goals

Direct sales campaigns

If your goal is to sell products and reach a specific type of audience, you might want to add a few targeting methods to your ad group that are set to “Target and bid.” Then your ads can show only when the specific targeting methods you’ve selected match. Here are some sample combinations:

Targeting methods “Target and bid” (default setting) “Bid only” When ads can show
Keywords + placements Keywords + placements Not selected Keywords AND placements both required for ads to show.
Audiences + age Audiences + age Not selected Audiences AND age both required for ads to show.
Keywords + topics Keywords + topics Not selected Keywords AND topics both required for ads to show.
Remarketing + gender Remarketing + gender Not selected Remarketing AND gender both required for ads to show.
Topics + audiences Topics + audiences Not selected Topics AND in-market audiences both required for ads to show.

Brand campaigns

If your goal is to reach as many people as possible, you might not want to add too many targeting methods to your ad group. You may still choose, however, to add multiple targeting methods so you can set bids on a particular one without significantly limiting your reach. Here are some sample combinations:

Targeting methods “Target and bid” (default setting) “Bid only” What it means
Age + gender + affinity audiences Age + gender + affinity audiences Not selected Age AND gender AND affinity audiences all required for ads to show.
Affinity audiences and age* Affinity audiences Age Affinity audiences required for ads to show. If affinity audiences and age overlap, you’ll see reporting for both. The bid used will depend on your bidding selection.
Keywords + placements Keywords Placements Keywords required for ads to show. If keywords and placements overlap, you’ll see reporting for both. The bid used will depend on your bidding selection.
Keywords + gender * Keywords Gender Keywords required for ads to show. If keywords and gender overlap, you’ll see reporting for both. The bid used will depend on your bidding selection.
Topics + affinity audiences + placements Topics + affinity audiences Placements Topics AND affinity audiences both required for ads to show. If topics, affinity audiences, and placements overlap, you’ll see reporting for all. The bid used will depend on your bidding selection.

* These combinations can be useful for people who would like to increase their chances of reaching certain demographic groups, but don’t want to restrict their traffic to those groups only.

A placement can be a website or a specific page on a site, a mobile app, video content, or even an individual ad unit.

Negative keywords let you exclude search terms from your campaigns and help you focus on only the keywords that matter to your customers. Better targeting can put your ad in front of interested users and increase your return on investment (ROI). You can create negative phrase match, negative exact match, and negative broad match.

For campaigns with “All features” enabled, you can use the ad schedule to:

  • Specify certain hours or days of the week when you want your ads to show.
  • Set bid adjustments to increase or decrease your bids for specific days and times.

If you haven’t used Display Planner before, read About Display Planner first.

Getting started

You can find Display Planner at the top of your AdWords account, under Tools. When you first open Display Planner, you’ll have a choice of four options to start building your campaign. In each section, you’ll enter your campaign language and location targeting, bid type, and ad format filters.

Find new targeting ideas

Search for new targeting ideas using a phrase, website, or category. Choose this option to get started with a broader selection of targeting ideas. You’ll enter keywords, topics, or websites that you think are likely to match your customer interests, and your landing page. That will get Display Planner started with the types of targeting and keywords that can build the foundation of your campaign.

Find top placements by location.  In this section, you’ll enter your campaign location and language targeting, bid type, your available ad formats, and topics that are relevant to your business. Using this info, Display Planner will show you the top Display Network inventory for your campaign.

See insights and forecasts for your targeting

In these two sections, you’ll still enter your campaign targeting, bidding, and ad formats. However, to get insights and forecasts specific to targeting you’ve already created, you can add in your existing targeting methods. You can either upload an existing Display Planner plan as a CSV file, or enter your targeting criteria (one per line) in the box. Here’s how these should look:

  • Keywords: Search phrase. Example: flight discounts
  • Placements: Web URL. Example:
  • Topics: Topic:<ID>. Example: Topic:1234
  • Interests: Interest:<ID>. Example: Interest:80001
  • Android apps: mobileapp:2-<ID>. Example: mobileapp:1-234567891
  • Mobile app categories: mobileappcategory:<ID>. Example: mobileappcategory:60008

Get inventory details for your targeting. Here you can enter targeting criteria or upload from a previous plan you’ve made. Once you click Get inventory details, you’ll see inventory data for your targeting ideas. You can then choose to add targeting details like placements and demographics to your plan.

Get performance forecasts for your targeting. Like above, you can also enter targeting criteria or upload from a previous plan you’ve made. Once you click Get performance forecasts, you’ll see a graph of your plan’s potential performance based on bid and budget. You can adjust this graph several ways:

  • Enter various bids and budgets in the boxes above.
  • Adjust the “Campaign targeting”, “Bid strategy”, and “Filters” sections on the side.
  • Click a point on the graph to select that bid.

Types of targeting methods and exclusions

On the Display Network tab, you’ll see different sub-tabs that correspond to the targeting for your ad group. You can add targeting methods to refine the places where your ads can appear and choose specific audiences that you want to see your ads.

Contextual targeting: Match relevant site content

  • Keywords: Target or exclude by a page’s key phrases, like Rafting travel packages.
  • Topics: Target or exclude by a page or site’s central theme, like Hiking & Camping.

Audiences: Reach specific groups of people

  • Interest categories: Target or exclude by interests or affinities, like Outdoor enthusiasts.
  • Remarketing: Target or exclude by people who have visited your site before.
  • Demographics: Target or exclude by age group or gender, like Males, 18-24.

Placement targeting: Select or exclude specific websites and apps

  • Placements: Target sites, mobile apps, or video, like with managed placements, or exclude any automatic placements using exclusions.
  • Site category options: Allow or exclude by Display Network categories, like live streaming video or sites about crime, police, and emergency.

You can target your ads by audience interests with custom affinity audiences, custom affinity audiences, and in-market audiences. Remarketing lets you show ads to people who’ve visited your website or used your mobile app. When people leave your website without buying anything, for example, remarketing helps you reconnect with them by showing relevant ads across their different devices.

Ways to remarket with Google AdWords

  • Standard remarketing: Show ads to your past visitors as they browse Display Network websites and use Display Network apps. Learn more
  • Dynamic remarketing: Boost your results with dynamic remarketing, which takes remarketing to the next level with ads that include products or services that people viewed on your website. Learn more. Create a feed for dynamic remarketing.
  • Remarketing for mobile apps: Show ads to people who have used your mobile app or mobile website as they use other mobile apps or browse other mobile websites. Learn more
  • Remarketing lists for search ads: Show ads to your past visitors as they do follow-up searches for what they need on Google, after leaving your website. Learn more
  • Video remarketing: Show ads to people who have interacted with your videos or YouTube channel as they use YouTube and browse Display Network videos, websites, and apps. Learn more
  • Email-list remarketing: With Customer Match, upload a list of email addresses that your customers have given you. When those people are signed in to Google Search, YouTube, or Gmail, you can show them ads.

Here are some questions to keep in mind as you start creating your ads:

  • What type of person is browsing the website placements you’re targeting?
  • What action do you want that person to take?
  • Do you have special offers or features available on your website for this person?
  • Can you show this person a unique page that will make them more likely to take the action you’d like?
  • Have you tested multiple versions of your ad to find the ones that work best?

Related links

Did you know…

If your campaign has at least 15 conversions per month, you can use these tools to optimize your campaigns automatically while still being in control of your targeting:

  • Conversion Optimizer is a bidding optimization engine that can help you maximize your return on investment (ROI) by optimizing bids in real-time, impression-by-impression.
  • Display Campaign Optimizer optimizes both targeting and bidding to help you find additional conversions for your Display Network campaigns.

Create three to four ads per ad group, trying out different messages with different images. See which ad performs the best with your customers. AdWords can automatically show the better-performing ads within an ad group more often. This removes the guesswork and lets you build on what you’ve learned from your experiments.

  • Use text, images, and color schemes effectively
  • Experiment with different display ad types and content designs
  • Take advantage of templates within the Ad gallery
  • Create your own custom images
  • Generate display ads based on your existing text ads

Types of automatic targeting

You can select from “conservative targeting” or “aggressive targeting” (known also as Display Campaign Optimizer). Both types can help you reach additional customers, but aggressive targeting applies more variations to your targeting. So if your keyword is “pens,” conservative targeting may extend to “felt-tip pens” and “ballpoint pens,” but aggressive targeting might show your ads in contexts related to “whiteboard markers” or “mechanical pencils”—if there’s data to suggest that those keywords will lead to conversions. Plus, automatic targeting works for remarketing.

Remarketing. If your remarketing list is for people visiting travel sites about Japan, conservative targeting may extend to people visiting sites about Tokyo tourist destinations. Aggressive targeting might go further, if the data supports it—it can expand independently of manual targeting based on predicted conversions.

Availability. Conservative targeting is available for all Display Network campaigns. Aggressive targeting is available for all Display Network campaigns with at least 15 conversions per month. This minimum is necessary because “aggressive” automatic targeting analyzes your campaign’s performance data to predict effective targeting, then to test and optimize it.

Conservative versus aggressive targeting. Aggressive targeting lets you reach more people than conservative targeting. The advantage of conservative over aggressive targeting is that, for a large majority of advertisers, it doesn’t exceed your current cost per customer (or Target CPA, if that’s the bidding strategy you’re using). So conservative targeting can be a better option for advertisers on a fixed or limited budget, or for those who need to hit their cost-per-customer targets.

Here are general guidelines:

  • Use conservative targeting when you want more conversions, but need to stay close to your current cost per customer (or Target CPA).
  • Use aggressive targeting when you want to get as many conversions as possible, and are comfortable with some variation from your current cost per customer (or Target CPA/ROAS).

Smart display campaigns. Smart display campaigns, which are highly automated, use yet another type of automated targeting, combining contextual and audience-based targeting. They also automatically remarket to people who’ve recently visited your site and who are likely to convert.

Bid adjustment eligibility




Campaign type

Device Location Ad scheduling Top content (Display Network, YouTube) Targeting method (Display Network) Remarketing lists for search ads (Search Network) Interactions
Search Network only: Standard Yes No No No No No Call
Search Network only (All features) Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Call
Display Network only (All features) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No N/A
Display Network only (Mobile apps) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No N/A
Display Network only (Remarketing, Engagement) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No N/A
Search Network with Display Select: Standard Yes No No No No No Call (Search only)
Search Network with Display Select: All features Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Call (Search only)
Shopping Yes Yes Yes No No Yes N/A
Video Yes Yes Yes Yes No No N/A

Google Shopping Exam

Google Shopping allows shoppers to quickly and easily find your products on Google. As a seller, Google Shopping lets you attract more potential buyers. Google Shopping helps you to reach shoppers while they are searching for items to buy on Google. You can also control your product information. With Google Shopping, you can maintain the accuracy and freshness of your product information.

Google Shopping is currently available in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Poland, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the UK, and the US. By linking your Google AdWords and Merchant Center accounts, you will be able to surface your products directly to users through Shopping ads.

If you’re a retailer, you can use Shopping campaigns to promote your online and local inventory, boost traffic to your website or local store, and find better-qualified leads. First, send Google product data with Merchant Center and create a campaign in AdWords. Shopping ads are then placed in a different area, because they’re more than a text ad–they show users a photo of your product, plus a title, price, store name, and more. These ads give users a strong sense of the product you’re selling before they click the ad, which gives you more qualified leads.

  • More traffic: Many businesses experience significantly higher clickthrough rates (CTR) with Shopping ads compared to text ads shown in the same location for shopping-related searches.
  • Better qualified leads: As a merchant, you can increase the quality of your leads by featuring product information directly in your ads to help shoppers make informed purchase decisions such as image and cost.
  • Easy retail-centric campaign management: Instead of keywords, Shopping ads use the product attributes you defined in your Merchant Center data feed to show your ads on relevant searches. Browse your product inventory directly in AdWords and create product groups for the items you want to bid on.
  • Broader presence: More than one of your Shopping ads can appear for a given user search and, if relevant, a Shopping ad and a text ad can also appear at the same time.
  • Product Shopping ads. These are created based on the product data that you submit to Merchant Center.
  • Showcase Shopping ads. You’ll create these in AdWords by grouping related products together. That way people can compare several of your products and click the right one.Powerful reporting and competitive data: See how your products are performing at any level of granularity you want. Identify growth opportunities with impression share data and the Bid Simulator tool.

    How Shopping campaigns and Shopping ads work

    Shopping ads use your existing Merchant Center product data — not keywords — to decide how and where to show your ads. The product data you submit through Merchant Center contains details about the products you sell. We’ll use these details when we match a user’s search to your ads, making sure to show the most relevant products. You manage your Shopping ads in AdWords using Shopping campaigns, a simple and flexible way to organize and promote your Google Merchant Center product inventory within AdWords. You can advertise your store and your products using two types of Shopping ads:

    Product Shopping ads are charged using cost-per-click (CPC), which is just when someone clicks your ad. So you’re charged only when someone clicks an ad that leads to the landing page on your website or to the Google-hosted landing page for your local inventory. Learn more about cost-per-click (CPC) bidding

Showcase Shopping ads are charged using cost-per-engagement (CPE), which is when someone expands your Showcase Shopping ad to see more, and then clicks. Charged only when people expand your ad and then click a link. If they just expand the ad, that’s free. Learn more about cost-per-engagement (CPE) bidding. When you’re creating your Shopping campaign, you’ll decide how much you’re willing to pay for each click or engagement. You’ll only pay the minimum amount necessary to rank higher than the advertiser immediately below you, and you’ll often pay less than your maximum bid.

Where your ads appear

  • Google Shopping (in select countries)
  • Google Search, next to search results and separate from text ads
  • Google Search Partner websites, including YouTube and Image Search in some countries (if your campaign is set to include search partners)

Your Shopping ads can appear at the same time as text ads, because we want to give shoppers access to the full variety of products that match their search.

Business information section of Merchant Center

In the navigation panel in your Merchant Center account. This information is used in different Merchant Center programs, such as Shopping ads. Google uses the business information you submit to display to users who view your products online.

  • Business display name: The name of your business or store.
  • Website: The domain that hosts your products.
  • Business address: The location of your headquarters .
  • Primary contact: The primary contact information for your Merchant Center account.
  • Technical contact (optional): The technical contact information for your Merchant Center account. This point of contact is used to send updates (as indicated) following data feed processing. Your contact information won’t be displayed publicly.
  • Customer service contact (optional): The customer service contact email, url, and number from your website.


Verify and claim your website URL in the Website page under Business information. Use this page to claim your website URL and go to Business information to update your URL.. Before you can upload product data to Merchant Center for Google Shopping, you need to verify and claim your store’s website URL. Verification lets Google know that you are an authoriz  ed owner of a website URL. Claiming associates the verified website URL with your Merchant Center account. Merchant Center leverages Google Search Console, a product that helps you monitor and maintain your site’s presence on Google, for website verification and claiming.

If your domain is already verified in an existing Google Search Console account, the easiest option for claiming that URL in Merchant Center is to add the Google Account for your Merchant Center account as an Owner of the verified Google Search Console account.
  • HTML file upload (most common method): You’ll upload an HTML file to your server and we’ll verify that the file exists in the specified location. To use this method, you must be able to upload new files to your server. To stay verified, do not remove the HTML file even after you’ve verified and claimed your website URL.
  • HTML tag: Add a meta tag to your home page. To use this method, you must be able to edit the HTML code of your site’s index page. To stay verified, do not remove the HTML tag even after you’ve verified and claimed your website URL.
  • Google Analytics: Add the Google Analytics code you use to track your site. To use this method, you must be an administrator of the Google Analytics account and you must be using the asynchronous tracking code. The Google Analytics tracking code is used only to verify your website URL ownership. No Google Analytics data will be accessed.
  • Google Tag Manager: Add the Google Tag manager container snippet to your website. You must have “View, Edit, and Manage” account level permission in Google Tag Manager. The Google Tag Manager container ID is used only to verify website ownership. No Google Tag Manager data will be accessed.

Multi-client accounts

Multi-client accounts allow you to submit items for more than one website domain. Multi-client account owners may verify and claim a website URL for the parent account. Typically, the parent account should verify and claim the top-level domain, e.g. Each sub-account will then automatically inherit the claim and can submit products for that domain. . Merchant Center multi-client accounts allow a single person or company to submit data feeds for multiple domains. Each client may have a distinct store name and URL. When you request a multi-client account, your current Google Merchant Center account will become a sub-account in your new multi-client account. Avoid submitting duplicate websites containing similar content to avoid account disapproval. Learn more about our policies on duplicate content. Multi-client accounts are designed for the management of multiple sellers and domains at a large scale, such as marketplaces and multi-country retailers. If you want to connect your Google account to multiple Merchant Center accounts, for example in order to manage their feeds, you can request to be added as a user by the respective account admin. Request a multi-client account

Navigate Google Merchant Center

Use Google Merchant Center as a resource to manage feeds, view data, and explore programs for your products. Go to the Home page from the navigation panel to quickly view Merchant Center announcements as well as your Dashboard information. The Dashboard contains cards such as product data overviews, feed information, and Shopping ad clicks. For more information on your product data, follow the direct links to access data diagnostics and product feeds.

Business information

Manage your business information and details in the Business information section.

  • About your business: Manage your store name and contact information. Learn more
  • Website: Claim and verify your website. Learn more
  • Logo: Upload your store’s logos to use when advertising your products on Google. Learn more


The products section allows you to manage your feeds, review feed data quality, and view a detailed list of your products in a centralized spot. Use the Products page to quickly access all information and configuration around your product data.

  • Diagnostics:  Review and troubleshoot current and historical issues with your product data. Use the context filter for more information on product eligibility in different contexts and programs.
  • Feeds: Register and upload feeds. Learn more about registering and uploading feeds. The Feeds page provides access to various feed related tools, including feed rules and downloadable error reports.
  • List: View detailed information about your submitted products and search for specific products. All click data is based on data available in AdWords and is calculated based on the time zone of your AdWords account. The data provided is from the previous 30 days.  Learn more
    • Note: If multiple AdWords accounts are linked to your Merchant Center account, click data will be aggregated from those accounts. Refer to your linked AdWords account for full reporting on the performance of your ads.

Tax and Shipping: Create and manage your tax or shipping settings.

Other program content

The Programs page contains cards featuring the various programs that are available in Merchant Center, and some may be a good fit for your business. Find the Programs page under the 3-dot icon  in the upper right-hand corner of your account. Continue exploring various programs by selecting the Learn more option in each card, and express your interest in participating in a program by selecting Get started.

Message archive

View recent account notifications within Merchant Center by clicking on the Mail icon in the upper right-hand corner of your account. This include notifications, alerts, and announcements that have been sent to your Merchant Center contacts. Feed status notifications will be removed from the message archive after 90 days. This feature is not yet available for parent multi-client accounts.

Manage account settings

G to your account management preferences, click the 3-dot icon   in the upper right-hand corner of your account.

  • Account settings: Manage your time zone and language preferences.
  • Account linking: Link your Adwords, Doubleclick, and supported e-commerce platforms to Merchant Center.
    • Adwords: Link your Merchant Center and Google AdWords accounts. Learn more
    • Doubleclick: Link your Merchant Center and DoubleClick Bid Manager account. Learn more
    • E-commerce platform: Link your Merchant Center and supported e-commerce platform accounts. Learn more
  • Automatic item updates: Enable automatic item updates to allow Google to update your items on Google Shopping based on the structured data markup we find on your website. Learn more
  • Users: Allow multiple users to access your account, and adjust user access level and administrative ownership for Merchant Center. Users can access multiple Merchant Center accounts from a single Google account and navigate between accounts by clicking the expand icon in the navigation panel. Learn more about user access.
  • STFP/FTP/GCS: Use SFTP (preferred), FTP, or Google Cloud Storage (GCS) to transfer product data to Google’s server.  Learn more about uploading via SFTP and FTP, or with Google Cloud Storage.
  • API diagnostics: Set up the Content API for Shopping (advanced), which enables you to programmatically upload product listings. Also review API call errors on this page.
  • Merchant Center programs: Explore programs in Merchant Center the may help you advertise your products.
  • Product. Word that describes the actual product that your potential customers would be searching for on Google
  • Item. Word that describes a product once it’s been added to your product data, either in a text feed, XML feed, or API. For example, an item is one line in your text feed
  • Variant. Word that describes a product that comes in different variations. For example, a shirt that comes in different sizes has size variants

The Difference Between XML and HTML

XML is not a replacement for HTML.

XML and HTML were designed with different goals:

  • XML was designed to describe data, with focus on what data is
  • HTML was designed to display data, with focus on how data looks

HTML is about displaying information, while XML is about carrying information.

XML Components

  • Element

An XML element is everything from (including) the element’s start tag to (including) the element’s end tag.

An element can contain:

  • other elements
  • text
  • attributes
  • or a mix of all of the above…


 <book category=“CHILDREN”>

   <title>Harry Potter</title>

   <author>J K. Rowling</author>




 <book category=“WEB”>

   <title>Learning XML</title>

   <author>Erik T. Ray</author>





In the example above, <bookstore> and <book> have element contents, because they contain other elements. <book> also has an attribute (category=”CHILDREN”). <title>, <author>, <year>, and <price> have text content because they contain text.

  • Attributes

XML elements can have attributes, just like HTML.

Attributes provide additional information about an element.

In HTML, attributes provide additional information about elements:

<img src=”computer.gif”>

<a href=”demo.asp”>

Attributes often provide information that is not a part of the data. In the example below, the file type is irrelevant to the data, but can be important to the software that wants to manipulate the element:

<file type=”gif”>computer.gif</file>

Attribute values must always be quoted. Either single or double quotes can be used. For a person’s gender, the person element can be written like this:

<person gender=”female”>

or like this:

<person gender=’female’>

If the attribute value itself contains double quotes you can use single quotes, like in this example:

<gangster name=’George “Shotgun” Ziegler’>

or you can use character entities:

<gangster name=”George &quot;Shotgun&quot; Ziegler”>

  • XML Elements vs. Attributes

Take a look at these examples:

<person gender=”female”>










In the first example gender is an attribute. In the last, gender is an element. Both examples provide the same information.

There are no rules about when to use attributes or when to use elements. Attributes are handy in HTML. In XML my advice is to avoid them. Use elements instead

XML Syntax Rules

All XML Elements Must Have a Closing Tag

XML Tags are Case Sensitive

XML Elements Must be Properly Nested